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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesScience Practice Challenge Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
39.

The gene SLC24A5 encodes an antiporter membrane protein that exchanges sodium for calcium (R. Ginger et al., JBC, 2007). This process has a role in the synthesis of the melanosomes that cause skin pigmentation. A mutation in this gene affecting a single amino acid occurs in humans. The homozygous mutant gene is found in 99% of humans with European origins. Both the wild type and mutant display codominance.

A. Representing the wild-type form of the gene as +/+ and the mutant form of the gene as m/m for two homozygous parents, construct a Punnett square for this cross using the first grid below. Annotate your representation to identify the phenotypes with high (H), intermediate (I), and low (L) melanosome production. Use the second grid to represent an F2 generation from the offspring of the first cross. Use annotation to show the phenotype.

F1 m m
+
+

F2

B. Draw sister chromatids at anaphase II for both parents in the F1 generation and annotate your drawing to identify each genotype of the gametes using the cells of the Punnett square.

C. Explain which of Mendel’s laws is violated by codominance.

D. Suppose that these data were available to evaluate the claim that the wild-type and mutant forms of SLC24A5 are codominant:

F2
Phenotype Observed Expected
H 1206
I 2238
L 1124

Complete the table. Explain the values expected in terms of the genotype of the offspring.

E. Using a c2 statistic at the 95% confidence level, evaluate the claim that the wild-type and mutant forms of SCLO24A5 are codominant. The definition of the statistic Χ c 2 = ( O i E i ) 2 E i Χ c 2 = ( O i E i ) 2 E i where X is the chi-square test statistic, c is the significant level of the test (we will use 0.05), O is the observed value for variable i, and E is the expected value for variable i. The Chi-square statistic table is provided in the AP Biology Exam.

Degrees of Freedom
p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.05 3.84 5.99 7.82 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51
Table 12.7
40.

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disorder in which lipids with very high molecular weights are not metabolized and accumulate within cells. Accumulation of these fats in the brain damages the myelin that surrounds nerves. This progressive disease has two causes: an autosomal recessive allele, which causes neonatal ALD, and a mutation in the ABCD1 gene located on the X chromosome. A controversial treatment is the use of Lorenzo’s oil, which is expensive; despite this treatment, neurological degradation persists in many patients. Gene therapy as a potential treatment is currently in trials but is also very costly.

An infant patient exhibits symptoms of neonatal ALD, which are difficult to distinguish from the X-linked form of the disease. The infant’s physician consults electronic health records to construct a pedigree showing family members who also presented symptoms similar to ALD. The pedigree is shown in this diagram. The infant patient is circled. Symbols for males (o) and females (m) are filled when symptoms are present.

The figure shows a flow chart with circles and squares connected by horizontal lines, with the circle and square pair branching downward to other rows of shapes. A key at the bottom states that square is male, circle is female, white is unaffected and blue is affected. Starting from the top, a white square is connected horizontally to a white circle. The pair branches downward to form a second line, with a blue square, a white circle, a blue circle, and a white square. The white square on the second line connects to a new white circle to form a blue square and a white square on a third line.  The blue square on the second line connects with a new white circle to form a white square and a white circle on the third row. The third row white circle connects with a new white square to form a blue square on a fourth row.
Figure 12.21

A. Using the pedigree, explain which form of ALD (neonatal or X-linked) is present in the infant.

B. Sharing of digital records among health providers is one method proposed to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care in the U.S. The privacy of electronic health records is a concern. Pose three questions that must be addressed in developing policies that balance the costs of treatments and diagnoses, patient quality of life, and risks to individual privacy.

41.

Two genes, A and B, are located adjacent to each other (linked) on the same chromosome. In the original cross (P0), one parent is homozygous dominant for both traits (AB), whereas the other parent is recessive (ab).

Characteristic Alleles Chromosome
Seed color yellow (I) / green (i) 1
Seed coat & flowers colored (A) / white (a) 1
Mature pods smooth (V) / wrinkled (v) 4
Flower stalk from leaf axils (Fa) / umbellate at top of plant (fa) 4
Height > 1 m (Le) / ~0.5 m (le) 4
Unripe pods green (Gp) / yellow (gp) 5
Mature seeds smooth (R) / wrinkled (r) 7
Table 12.8
  1. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes in F1.
  2. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes when F1 is crossed with the ab parent.
  3. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes when F1 is crossed with the AB parent.
  4. Explain the observed non-Mendelian results in terms of the violation of the laws governing Mendelian genetics.
42.

Gregor Mendel’s 1865 paper described experiments on the inheritance of seven characteristics of Pisum sativum shown in the first column in the table below. Many years later, based on his reported outcomes and analysis of the inheritance of a single characteristic, Mendel developed the concepts of genes, their alleles, and dominance. These concepts are defined in the second column of the table using conventional symbols for the dominant allele for each characteristic. Even later, the location of each of these genes on one of the seven chromosomes in P. sativum were determined, as shown in the third column.

A. Before the acceptance of what Mendel called “factors” as the discrete units of inheritance, the accepted model was that the traits of progeny were “blended” traits of the parents. Evaluate the evidence provided by Mendel’s experiments in disproving the blending theory of inheritance.

B. Mendel published experimental data and analysis for two experiments involving the inheritance of more than a single characteristic. He examined two-character inheritance of seed shape and seed color. He also reported three-character inheritance of seed shape, seed color, and flower color. Evaluate the evidence provided by the multiple-character experiments. Identify which of the following laws of inheritance depend upon these multiple-character experiments for support:

  1. During gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.
  2. Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
  3. Some alleles are dominant, whereas others are recessive. An organism with at least one dominant allele will display the effect of the dominant allele.
  4. All three laws can be inferred from the single-character experiments.

C. As shown in the table above, some chromosomes contain the gene for more than one of the seven characteristics Mendel studied, for example, seed color and flowers. The table below shows, with filled cells above the dashed diagonal line, the combinations of characteristics for which Mendel reported results. In the cells below the dotted diagonal line, identify with an X each cell where deviations from the law or laws identified in part B might be expected.

The table shows the combinations of characteristics for which Mendel reported results.
Figure 12.22

D. Explain the reasons for the expected deviations for those combinations of characteristics identified in part C.

E. In one of the experiments reported by Mendel, deviations from the law identified in part B might be expected. Explain how the outcomes of this experiment were consistent with Mendel’s laws.

43.

A dihybrid cross involves two traits. A cross of parental types AaBb and AaBb can be represented with a Punnett square:

This figure shoes a Punnett square and organizes all of the possible genotypes and reveals the nine to three to three to one distribution of phenotypes and a four by four grid of sixteen cells.
Figure 12.23

This representation clearly organizes all of the possible genotypes and reveals the 9:3:3:1 distribution of phenotypes and a 4×4 grid of 16 cells. Expressed as a fraction of the 16 possible genotypes of the offspring, the phenotypic ratio describes the probability of each phenotype among the offspring: 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 3 (BB, bB, Bb)/16 = 9/16; 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 1 (bb) /16 = 3/16; 1 (aa) × 3 (BB, bB, Bb) = 3/16; and 1 (aa) × 1 (bb) = 1/16.

A. Using the probability method, calculate the likelihood of these phenotypes from each dihybrid cross:

  • recessive in the gene with alleles A and a from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • dominant in both genes from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • recessive in both genes from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • recessive in either gene from the cross AaBb × aabb

A Punnett square representation of a trihybrid cross, such as the self-cross of AaBbCc, is more cumbersome because there are eight columns and rows (2×2×2 ways to choose parental genotypes) and 64 cells. A less tedious representation is to calculate the number of each type of genotype in the offspring directly by counting the unique permutations of the letters representing the alleles. For example, the probability of the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc is 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 3 (BB, Bb, bB) × 3 (CC, Cc, cC)/64 = 27/64.

B. Using the probability method, calculate the likelihood of these phenotypes from each trihybrid cross:

  • recessive in all traits from the cross AaBbCc × aabbcc
  • recessive in the gene with alleles C and c and dominant in the other two traits from the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc
  • dominant in the gene with alleles A and a and recessive in the other two traits from the cross AaBbcc × AaBbCc

C. The probability method is an easy way to calculate the likelihood of each particular phenotype, but it doesn’t simultaneously display the probability of all possible phenotypes. The forked line representation described in the text allows the entire phenotypic distribution to be displayed. Using the forked line method, calculate the probabilities in a cross between AABBCc and Aabbcc parents:

  • all traits are recessive: aabbcc
  • traits are dominant at each loci, A?B?C?
  • traits are dominant at two genes and recessive at the third
  • traits are dominant at one gene and recessive at the other two
44.

Construct a representation showing the connection between the process of meiosis and the transmission of six possible phenotypes from parents to F2 offspring. The phenotypes are labeled A, a, B, b and C, c. Expression of each phenotype is controlled by a separate Mendelian gene. Your representation should show the proportion of every possible combination of phenotypes (e.g., ABC, AbC, etc.) that will be present in the F2 offspring.

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