The energy currency used by cells is ________.
A reducing chemical reaction ________.
- reduces the compound to a simpler form
- adds an electron to the substrate
- removes a hydrogen atom from the substrate
- is a catabolic reaction
During the second half of glycolysis, what occurs?
- ATP is used up.
- Fructose is split in two.
- ATP is made.
- Glucose becomes fructose.
What is removed from pyruvate during its conversion into an acetyl group?
- B vitamin
- carbon dioxide
What do the electrons added to NAD+ do?
- They become part of a fermentation pathway.
- They go to another pathway for ATP production.
- They energize the entry of the acetyl group into the citric acid cycle.
- They are converted to NADP.
GTP or ATP is produced during the conversion of ________.
- isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate
- succinyl CoA into succinate
- fumarate into malate
- malate into oxaloacetate
How many NADH molecules are produced on each turn of the citric acid cycle?
What compound receives electrons from NADH?
- cytochrome c1
Chemiosmosis involves ________.
- the movement of electrons across the cell membrane
- the movement of hydrogen atoms across a mitochondrial membrane
- the movement of hydrogen ions across a mitochondrial membrane
- the movement of glucose through the cell membrane
Which of the following fermentation methods can occur in animal skeletal muscles?
- lactic acid fermentation
- alcohol fermentation
- mixed acid fermentation
- propionic fermentation
A major connection for sugars in glycolysis is ________.
- dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Beta-oxidation is ________.
- the breakdown of sugars
- the assembly of sugars
- the breakdown of fatty acids
- the removal of amino groups from amino acids
The effect of high levels of ADP is to ________ in cellular respiration.
- increase the activity of specific enzymes
- decrease the activity of specific enzymes
- have no effect on the activity of specific enzymes
- slow down the pathway
The control of which enzyme exerts the most control on glycolysis?