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Biology 2e

Review Questions

Biology 2eReview Questions


When dehydrated human patients need to be given fluids intravenously, they are given:

  1. water, which is hypotonic with respect to body fluids
  2. saline at a concentration that is isotonic with respect to body fluids
  3. glucose because it is a non-electrolyte
  4. blood

The sodium ion is at the highest concentration in:

  1. intracellular fluid
  2. extracellular fluid
  3. blood plasma
  4. none of the above

Cells in a hypertonic solution tend to:

  1. shrink due to water loss
  2. swell due to water gain
  3. stay the same size due to water moving into and out of the cell at the same rate
  4. none of the above

The macula densa is/are:

  1. present in the renal medulla.
  2. dense tissue present in the outer layer of the kidney.
  3. cells present in the DCT and collecting tubules.
  4. present in blood capillaries.

The osmolarity of body fluids is maintained at ________.

  1. 100 mOsm
  2. 300 mOsm
  3. 1000 mOsm
  4. it is not constantly maintained

The gland located at the top of the kidney is the ________ gland.

  1. adrenal
  2. pituitary
  3. thyroid
  4. thymus

Active transport of K+ in Malpighian tubules ensures that:

  1. water follows K+ to make urine
  2. osmotic balance is maintained between waste matter and bodily fluids
  3. both a and b
  4. neither a nor b

Contractile vacuoles in microorganisms:

  1. exclusively perform an excretory function
  2. can perform many functions, one of which is excretion of metabolic wastes
  3. originate from the cell membrane
  4. both b and c

Flame cells are primitive excretory organs found in ________.

  1. arthropods
  2. annelids
  3. mammals
  4. flatworms

BUN is ________.

  1. blood urea nitrogen
  2. blood uric acid nitrogen
  3. an indicator of blood volume
  4. an indicator of blood pressure

Human beings accumulate ________ before excreting nitrogenous waste.

  1. nitrogen
  2. ammonia
  3. urea
  4. uric acid

Renin is made by ________.

  1. granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
  2. the kidneys
  3. the nephrons
  4. all of the above

Patients with Addison's disease ________.

  1. retain water
  2. retain salts
  3. lose salts and water
  4. have too much aldosterone

Which hormone elicits the “fight or flight” response?

  1. epinephrine
  2. mineralocorticoids
  3. anti-diuretic hormone
  4. thyroxine
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