Which polysaccharide is usually found in the cell wall of fungi?
Which of these organelles is not found in a fungal cell?
- Golgi apparatus
The wall dividing individual cells in a fungal filament is called a
During sexual reproduction, a homothallic mycelium contains
- all septated hyphae
- all haploid nuclei
- both mating types
- none of the above
The life cycles of perfect fungi are most similar to which other organism?
- Hydra that undergo asexual budding
- Diploid-dominant pea plants
- Haploid-dominant green algae
- Bacteria undergoing binary fission
The most primitive phylum of fungi is the ________.
Members of which phylum produce a club-shaped structure that contains spores?
Members of which phylum establish a successful symbiotic relationship with the roots of trees?
The fungi that do not reproduce sexually used to be classified as ________.
A scientist discovers a new species of fungus that introduces genetic diversity during reproduction by creating a diploid zygote. This new species cannot belong to which modern phylum of fungi?
What term describes the close association of a fungus with the root of a tree?
- a rhizoid
- a lichen
- a mycorrhiza
- an endophyte
Why are fungi important decomposers?
- They produce many spores.
- They can grow in many different environments.
- They produce mycelia.
- They recycle carbon and inorganic minerals by the process of decomposition.
Consider an ecosystem where all the fungi not involved in mycorrhizae are eliminated. How would this affect nitrogen intake by plants?
- Nitrogen intake would increase.
- Nitrogen intake would not change.
- Nitrogen intake would decrease.
- Nitrogen intake would stop.
A fungus that climbs up a tree reaching higher elevation to release its spores in the wind and does not receive any nutrients from the tree or contribute to the tree’s welfare is described as a ________.
A fungal infection that affects nails and skin is classified as ________.
- systemic mycosis
- superficial mycosis
The targets for anti-fungal drugs are much more limited than antibiotics or anti-viral medications. Why?
- There are more bacteria and viruses than fungi.
- Fungi can only be targeted during sexual reproduction, while bacteria and viruses can be targeted at any point in their lifespan.
- Fungi cause topical infections, while viruses and bacteria cause systemic infections.
- Human cells are much more similar to fungi cells than bacteria or viruses.
Yeast is a facultative anaerobe. This means that alcohol fermentation takes place only if:
- the temperature is close to 37°C
- the atmosphere does not contain oxygen
- sugar is provided to the cells
- light is provided to the cells
The advantage of yeast cells over bacterial cells to express human proteins is that:
- yeast cells grow faster
- yeast cells are easier to manipulate genetically
- yeast cells are eukaryotic and modify proteins similarly to human cells
- yeast cells are easily lysed to purify the proteins
Why are fungal insecticides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for growing food crops?
- Human consumption of fungal insecticides would not make a person sick, but ingestion of chemical pesticides can be harmful to humans.
- A single fungal insecticide would kill a wider variety of insects than a chemical pesticide.
- Fungal insecticides can eliminate both harmful insects and plant pathogens, while chemical pesticides only kill insects.
- Fungal insecticides will decompose dying plants, enhancing the nitrogen content of the soil, while chemical pesticides are not decomposers.