Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?
- natural selection
- sexual reproduction
Which of the following situations will lead to natural selection?
- The seeds of two plants land near each other and one grows larger than the other.
- Two types of fish eat the same kind of food, and one is better able to gather food than the other.
- Male lions compete for the right to mate with females, with only one possible winner.
- all of the above
Which description is an example of a phenotype?
- A certain duck has a blue beak.
- A mutation occurred to a flower.
- Most cheetahs live solitary lives.
- both a and c
Which situation is most likely an example of convergent evolution?
- Squid and humans have eyes similar in structure.
- Worms and snakes both move without legs.
- Some bats and birds have wings that allow them to fly.
- all of the above
Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?
- Flood causes the formation of a new lake.
- A storm causes several large trees to fall down.
- A mutation causes a new trait to develop.
- An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.
What is the main difference between dispersal and vicariance?
- One leads to allopatric speciation, whereas the other leads to sympatric speciation.
- One involves the movement of the organism, and the other involves a change in the environment.
- One depends on a genetic mutation occurring, and the other does not.
- One involves closely related organisms, and the other involves only individuals of the same species.
Which variable increases the likelihood of allopatric speciation taking place more quickly?
- lower rate of mutation
- longer distance between divided groups
- increased instances of hybrid formation
- equivalent numbers of individuals in each population
What is the main difference between autopolyploid and allopolyploid?
- the number of chromosomes
- the functionality of the chromosomes
- the source of the extra chromosomes
- the number of mutations in the extra chromosomes
Which reproductive combination produces hybrids?
- when individuals of the same species in different geographical areas reproduce
- when any two individuals sharing the same habitat reproduce
- when members of closely related species reproduce
- when offspring of the same parents reproduce
Which condition is the basis for a species to be reproductively isolated from other members?
- It does not share its habitat with related species.
- It does not exist out of a single habitat.
- It does not exchange genetic information with other species.
- It does not undergo evolutionary changes for a significant period of time.
Which situation is not an example of a prezygotic barrier?
- Two species of turtles breed at different times of the year.
- Two species of flowers attract different pollinators.
- Two species of birds display different mating dances.
- Two species of insects produce infertile offspring.
Which term is used to describe the continued divergence of species based on the low fitness of hybrid offspring?
- punctuated equilibrium
Which components of speciation would be least likely to be a part of punctuated equilibrium?
- a division of populations
- a change in environmental conditions
- ongoing gene flow among all individuals
- a large number of mutations taking place at once