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Biology 2e

Key Terms

Biology 2eKey Terms

antibiotic resistance
ability of an organism to be unaffected by an antibiotic's actions
individual protein that is uniquely produced in a diseased state
use of biological agents for technological advancement
cDNA library
collection of cloned cDNA sequences
cellular cloning
production of identical cell populations by binary fission
chain termination method
method of DNA sequencing using labeled dideoxynucleotides to terminate DNA replication; it is also called the dideoxy method or the Sanger method
exact replica
larger sequence of DNA assembled from overlapping shorter sequences
cytogenetic mapping
technique that uses a microscope to create a map from stained chromosomes
individual DNA monomer (single unit)
individual DNA monomer that is missing a hydroxyl group (–OH)
DNA microarray
method to detect gene expression by analyzing many DNA fragments that are fixed to a glass slide or a silicon chip to identify active genes and identify sequences
expressed sequence tag (EST)
short STS that is identified with cDNA
false negative
incorrect test result that should have been positive
foreign DNA
DNA that belongs to a different species or DNA that is artificially synthesized
gel electrophoresis
technique used to separate molecules on the basis of size using electric charge
gene targeting
method for altering the sequence of a specific gene by introducing the modified version on a vector
gene therapy
technique used to cure inheritable diseases by replacing mutant genes with good genes
genetic diagnosis
diagnosis of the potential for disease development by analyzing disease-causing genes
genetic engineering
alteration of the genetic makeup of an organism
genetic map
outline of genes and their location on a chromosome
genetic marker
gene or sequence on a chromosome with a known location that is associated with a specific trait
genetic recombination
DNA exchange between homologous chromosome pairs
genetic testing
process of testing for the presence of disease-causing genes
genetically modified organism (GMO)
organism whose genome has been artificially changed
genome annotation
process of attaching biological information to gene sequences
genome mapping
process of finding the location of genes on each chromosome
genomic library
collection of cloned DNA which represents all of the sequences and fragments from a genome
study of entire genomes including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species
host DNA
DNA that is present in the genome of the organism of interest
linkage analysis
procedure that analyzes recombining genes to determine if they are linked
lysis buffer
solution to break the cell membrane and release cell contents
complete set of metabolites which are related to an organism's genetic makeup
study of small molecule metabolites in an organism
study of multiple species' collective genomes that grow and interact in an environmental niche
microsatellite polymorphism
variation between individuals in the sequence and number of microsatellite DNA repeats
model organism
species that researchers study and use as a model to understand the biological processes in other species represented by the model organism
molecular cloning
cloning of DNA fragments
multiple cloning site (MCS)
site that multiple restriction endonucleases can recognize
next-generation sequencing
group of automated techniques for rapid DNA sequencing
Northern blotting
transfer of RNA from a gel to a nylon membrane
study of drug interactions with the genome or proteome; also called toxicogenomics
physical map
representation of the physical distance between genes or genetic markers
phenotypic characteristic caused by two or more genes
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique to amplify DNA
small DNA fragment to determine if the complementary sequence is present in a DNA sample
enzyme that breaks down proteins
protein signature
set of uniquely expressed proteins in the diseased state
entire set of proteins that cell type produces
study of proteomes' function
pure culture
growth of a single cell type in the laboratory
radiation hybrid mapping
information obtained by fragmenting the chromosome with x-rays
recombinant DNA
combining DNA fragments that molecular cloning generates that do not exist in nature; also a chimeric molecule
recombinant protein
a gene's protein product derived by molecular cloning
reproductive cloning
entire organism cloning
restriction endonuclease
enzyme that can recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences
restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
variation between individuals in the length of DNA fragments, which restriction endonucleases generate
reverse genetics
method of determining the gene's function by starting with the gene itself instead of starting with the gene product
reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
PCR technique that involves converting RNA to DNA by reverse transcriptase
enzyme that breaks down RNA
sequence mapping
mapping information obtained after DNA sequencing
shotgun sequencing
method used to sequence multiple DNA fragments to generate the sequence of a large piece of DNA
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
variation between individuals in a single nucleotide
Southern blotting
DNA transfer from a gel to a nylon membrane
systems biology
study of whole biological systems (genomes and proteomes) based on interactions within the system
Ti plasmid
plasmid system derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens that scientists have used to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells
organism that receives DNA from a different species
variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs)
variation in the number of tandem repeats between individuals in the population
whole-genome sequencing
process that determines an entire genome's DNA sequence
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