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Astronomy

C | Scientific Notation

AstronomyC | Scientific Notation
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Nature of Astronomy
    3. 1.2 The Nature of Science
    4. 1.3 The Laws of Nature
    5. 1.4 Numbers in Astronomy
    6. 1.5 Consequences of Light Travel Time
    7. 1.6 A Tour of the Universe
    8. 1.7 The Universe on the Large Scale
    9. 1.8 The Universe of the Very Small
    10. 1.9 A Conclusion and a Beginning
    11. For Further Exploration
  3. 2 Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 2.1 The Sky Above
    3. 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
    4. 2.3 Astrology and Astronomy
    5. 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  4. 3 Orbits and Gravity
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
    4. 3.3 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    5. 3.4 Orbits in the Solar System
    6. 3.5 Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft
    7. 3.6 Gravity with More Than Two Bodies
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  5. 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 4.1 Earth and Sky
    3. 4.2 The Seasons
    4. 4.3 Keeping Time
    5. 4.4 The Calendar
    6. 4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
    7. 4.6 Ocean Tides and the Moon
    8. 4.7 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  6. 5 Radiation and Spectra
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 5.1 The Behavior of Light
    3. 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    4. 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
    5. 5.4 The Structure of the Atom
    6. 5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
    7. 5.6 The Doppler Effect
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  7. 6 Astronomical Instruments
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 6.1 Telescopes
    3. 6.2 Telescopes Today
    4. 6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
    5. 6.4 Radio Telescopes
    6. 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
    7. 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  8. 7 Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
    3. 7.2 Composition and Structure of Planets
    4. 7.3 Dating Planetary Surfaces
    5. 7.4 Origin of the Solar System
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  9. 8 Earth as a Planet
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 8.1 The Global Perspective
    3. 8.2 Earth’s Crust
    4. 8.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
    5. 8.4 Life, Chemical Evolution, and Climate Change
    6. 8.5 Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of Earth
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  10. 9 Cratered Worlds
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 9.1 General Properties of the Moon
    3. 9.2 The Lunar Surface
    4. 9.3 Impact Craters
    5. 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
    6. 9.5 Mercury
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  11. 10 Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 10.1 The Nearest Planets: An Overview
    3. 10.2 The Geology of Venus
    4. 10.3 The Massive Atmosphere of Venus
    5. 10.4 The Geology of Mars
    6. 10.5 Water and Life on Mars
    7. 10.6 Divergent Planetary Evolution
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  12. 11 The Giant Planets
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 11.1 Exploring the Outer Planets
    3. 11.2 The Giant Planets
    4. 11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  13. 12 Rings, Moons, and Pluto
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 12.1 Ring and Moon Systems Introduced
    3. 12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
    4. 12.3 Titan and Triton
    5. 12.4 Pluto and Charon
    6. 12.5 Planetary Rings
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  14. 13 Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 13.1 Asteroids
    3. 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
    4. 13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
    5. 13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  15. 14 Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 14.1 Meteors
    3. 14.2 Meteorites: Stones from Heaven
    4. 14.3 Formation of the Solar System
    5. 14.4 Comparison with Other Planetary Systems
    6. 14.5 Planetary Evolution
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  16. 15 The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
    3. 15.2 The Solar Cycle
    4. 15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
    5. 15.4 Space Weather
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  17. 16 The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 16.1 Sources of Sunshine: Thermal and Gravitational Energy
    3. 16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
    4. 16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
    5. 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  18. 17 Analyzing Starlight
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 17.1 The Brightness of Stars
    3. 17.2 Colors of Stars
    4. 17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
    5. 17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  19. 18 The Stars: A Celestial Census
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 18.1 A Stellar Census
    3. 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
    4. 18.3 Diameters of Stars
    5. 18.4 The H–R Diagram
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  20. 19 Celestial Distances
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 19.1 Fundamental Units of Distance
    3. 19.2 Surveying the Stars
    4. 19.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
    5. 19.4 The H–R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  21. 20 Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
    3. 20.2 Interstellar Gas
    4. 20.3 Cosmic Dust
    5. 20.4 Cosmic Rays
    6. 20.5 The Life Cycle of Cosmic Material
    7. 20.6 Interstellar Matter around the Sun
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  22. 21 The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 21.1 Star Formation
    3. 21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
    4. 21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
    5. 21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
    6. 21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
    7. 21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  23. 22 Stars from Adolescence to Old Age
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 22.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Red Giants
    3. 22.2 Star Clusters
    4. 22.3 Checking Out the Theory
    5. 22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
    6. 22.5 The Evolution of More Massive Stars
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  24. 23 The Death of Stars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
    3. 23.2 Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish
    4. 23.3 Supernova Observations
    5. 23.4 Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars
    6. 23.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
    7. 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  25. 24 Black Holes and Curved Spacetime
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
    3. 24.2 Spacetime and Gravity
    4. 24.3 Tests of General Relativity
    5. 24.4 Time in General Relativity
    6. 24.5 Black Holes
    7. 24.6 Evidence for Black Holes
    8. 24.7 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  26. 25 The Milky Way Galaxy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 25.1 The Architecture of the Galaxy
    3. 25.2 Spiral Structure
    4. 25.3 The Mass of the Galaxy
    5. 25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
    6. 25.5 Stellar Populations in the Galaxy
    7. 25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  27. 26 Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 26.1 The Discovery of Galaxies
    3. 26.2 Types of Galaxies
    4. 26.3 Properties of Galaxies
    5. 26.4 The Extragalactic Distance Scale
    6. 26.5 The Expanding Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  28. 27 Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 27.1 Quasars
    3. 27.2 Supermassive Black Holes: What Quasars Really Are
    4. 27.3 Quasars as Probes of Evolution in the Universe
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  29. 28 The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies
    3. 28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei
    4. 28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
    5. 28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter
    6. 28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  30. 29 The Big Bang
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 29.1 The Age of the Universe
    3. 29.2 A Model of the Universe
    4. 29.3 The Beginning of the Universe
    5. 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
    6. 29.5 What Is the Universe Really Made Of?
    7. 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
    8. 29.7 The Anthropic Principle
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  31. 30 Life in the Universe
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
    3. 30.2 Astrobiology
    4. 30.3 Searching for Life beyond Earth
    5. 30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  32. A | How to Study for an Introductory Astronomy Class
  33. B | Astronomy Websites, Images, and Apps
  34. C | Scientific Notation
  35. D | Units Used in Science
  36. E | Some Useful Constants for Astronomy
  37. F | Physical and Orbital Data for the Planets
  38. G | Selected Moons of the Planets
  39. H | Future Total Eclipses
  40. I | The Nearest Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and White Dwarfs
  41. J | The Brightest Twenty Stars
  42. K | The Chemical Elements
  43. L | The Constellations
  44. M | Star Chart and Sky Event Resources
  45. Index

In astronomy (and other sciences), it is often necessary to deal with very large or very small numbers. In fact, when numbers become truly large in everyday life, such as the national debt in the United States, we call them astronomical. Among the ideas astronomers must routinely deal with is that the Earth is 150,000,000,000 meters from the Sun, and the mass of the hydrogen atom is 0.00000000000000000000000000167 kilograms. No one in his or her right mind would want to continue writing so many zeros!

Instead, scientists have agreed on a kind of shorthand notation, which is not only easier to write, but (as we shall see) makes multiplication and division of large and small numbers much less difficult. If you have never used this powers-of-ten notation or scientific notation, it may take a bit of time to get used to it, but you will soon find it much easier than keeping track of all those zeros.

Writing Large Numbers

In scientific notation, we generally agree to have only one number to the left of the decimal point. If a number is not in this format, it must be changed. The number 6 is already in the right format, because for integers, we understand there to be a decimal point to the right of them. So 6 is really 6., and there is indeed only one number to the left of the decimal point. But the number 965 (which is 965.) has three numbers to the left of the decimal point, and is thus ripe for conversion.

To change 965 to proper form, we must make it 9.65 and then keep track of the change we have made. (Think of the number as a weekly salary and suddenly it makes a lot of difference whether we have $965 or $9.65.) We keep track of the number of places we moved the decimal point by expressing it as a power of ten. So 965 becomes 9.65 × 102 or 9.65 multiplied by ten to the second power. The small raised 2 is called an exponent, and it tells us how many times we moved the decimal point to the left.

Note that 102 also designates 10 squared, or 10 × 10, which equals 100. And 9.65 × 100 is just 965, the number we started with. Another way to look at scientific notation is that we separate out the messy numbers out front, and leave the smooth units of ten for the exponent to denote. So a number like 1,372,568 becomes 1.372568 times a million (106) or 1.372568 times 10 multiplied by itself 6 times. We had to move the decimal point six places to the left (from its place after the 8) to get the number into the form where there is only one digit to the left of the decimal point.

The reason we call this powers-of-ten notation is that our counting system is based on increases of ten; each place in our numbering system is ten times greater than the place to the right of it. As you have probably learned, this got started because human beings have ten fingers and we started counting with them. (It is interesting to speculate that if we ever meet intelligent life-forms with only eight fingers, their counting system would probably be a powers-of-eight notation!)

So, in the example we started with, the number of meters from Earth to the Sun is 1.5 × 1011. Elsewhere in the book, we mention that a string 1 light-year long would fit around Earth’s equator 236 million or 236,000,000 times. In scientific notation, this would become 2.36 × 108. Now if you like expressing things in millions, as the annual reports of successful companies do, you might like to write this number as 236 × 106. However, the usual convention is to have only one number to the left of the decimal point.

Writing Small Numbers

Now take a number like 0.00347, which is also not in the standard (agreed-to) form for scientific notation. To put it into that format, we must make the first part of it 3.47 by moving the decimal point three places to the right. Note that this motion to the right is the opposite of the motion to the left that we discussed above. To keep track, we call this change negative and put a minus sign in the exponent. Thus 0.00347 becomes 3.47 × 10−3.

In the example we gave at the beginning, the mass of the hydrogen atom would then be written as 1.67 × 10−27 kg. In this system, one is written as 100, a tenth as 10−1, a hundredth as 10−2, and so on. Note that any number, no matter how large or how small, can be expressed in scientific notation.

Multiplication and Division

Scientific notation is not only compact and convenient, it also simplifies arithmetic. To multiply two numbers expressed as powers of ten, you need only multiply the numbers out front and then add the exponents. If there are no numbers out front, as in 100 × 100,000, then you just add the exponents (in our notation, 102 × 105 = 107). When there are numbers out front, you have to multiply them, but they are much easier to deal with than numbers with many zeros in them.

Here’s an example:

(3×105)×(2×109)=6×1014(3×105)×(2×109)=6×1014

And here’s another example:

0.04×6,000,000=(4×102)×(6×106)=24×104=2.4×1050.04×6,000,000=(4×102)×(6×106)=24×104=2.4×105

Note in the second example that when we added the exponents, we treated negative exponents as we do in regular arithmetic (−2 plus 6 equals 4). Also, notice that our first result had a 24 in it, which was not in the acceptable form, having two places to the left of the decimal point, and we therefore changed it to 2.4 and changed the exponent accordingly.

To divide, you divide the numbers out front and subtract the exponents. Here are several examples:

1,000,0001000=106103=10(63)=1039×10122×103=4.5×1092.8×1026.2×105=0.452×103=4.52×1041,000,0001000=106103=10(63)=1039×10122×103=4.5×1092.8×1026.2×105=0.452×103=4.52×104

In the last example, our first result was not in the standard form, so we had to change 0.452 into 4.52, and change the exponent accordingly.

If this is the first time that you have met scientific notation, we urge you to practice many examples using it. You might start by solving the exercises below. Like any new language, the notation looks complicated at first but gets easier as you practice it.

Exercises

  1. At the end of September, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft (which encountered Pluto for the first time in July 2015) was 4.898 billion km from Earth. Convert this number to scientific notation. How many astronomical units is this? (An astronomical unit is the distance from Earth to the Sun, or about 150 million km.)
  2. During the first six years of its operation, the Hubble Space Telescope circled Earth 37,000 times, for a total of 1,280,000,000 km. Use scientific notation to find the number of km in one orbit.
  3. In a large university cafeteria, a soybean-vegetable burger is offered as an alternative to regular hamburgers. If 889,875 burgers were eaten during the course of a school year, and 997 of them were veggie-burgers, what fraction and what percent of the burgers does this represent?
  4. In a 2012 Kelton Research poll, 36 percent of adult Americans thought that alien beings have actually landed on Earth. The number of adults in the United States in 2012 was about 222,000,000. Use scientific notation to determine how many adults believe aliens have visited Earth.
  5. In the school year 2009–2010, American colleges and universities awarded 2,354,678 degrees. Among these were 48,069 PhD degrees. What fraction of the degrees were PhDs? Express this number as a percent. (Now go and find a job for all those PhDs!)
  6. A star 60 light-years away has been found to have a large planet orbiting it. Your uncle wants to know the distance to this planet in old-fashioned miles. Assume light travels 186,000 miles per second, and there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day, and 365 days in a year. How many miles away is that star?

Answers

  1. 4.898 billion is 4.898 × 109 km. One astronomical unit (AU) is 150 million km = 1.5 × 108 km. Dividing the first number by the second, we get 3.27 × 10(9 – 8) = 3.27 × 101 AU.
  2. 1.28×109km3.7×104orbits=0.346×10(94)=0.346×105=3.46×104km per orbit.1.28×109km3.7×104orbits=0.346×10(94)=0.346×105=3.46×104km per orbit.
  3. 9.97×102veggie burgers8.90×105total burgers=1.12×10(25)=1.12×10(25)=1.12×10−39.97×102veggie burgers8.90×105total burgers=1.12×10(25)=1.12×10(25)=1.12×10−3 (or roughly about one thousandth) of the burgers were vegetarian. Percent means per hundred. So 1.12×10−310−2=1.12×10(−3(−2))=1.12×10−1percent1.12×10−310−2=1.12×10(−3(−2))=1.12×10−1percent (which is roughly one tenth of one percent).
  4. 36% is 36 hundredths or 0.36 or 3.6 × 10−1. Multiply that by 2.22 × 108 and you get about 7.99 × 10(−1 + 8) = 7.99 × 107 or almost 80 million people who believe that aliens have landed on our planet. We need more astronomy courses to educate all those people.
  5. 4.81×1042.35×106=2.05×10(46)=2.05×10−2=about2%4.81×1042.35×106=2.05×10(46)=2.05×10−2=about2%. (Note that in these examples we are rounding off some of the numbers so that we don’t have more than 2 places after the decimal point.)
  6. One light-year is the distance that light travels in one year. (Usually, we use metric units and not the old British system that the United States is still using, but we are going to humor your uncle and stick with miles.) If light travels 186,000 miles every second, then it will travel 60 times that in a minute, and 60 times that in an hour, and 24 times that in a day, and 365 times that in a year. So we have 1.86 × 105 × 6.0 × 101 × 6.0 × 101 × 2.4 × 101 × 3.65 × 102. So we multiply all the numbers out front together and add all the exponents. We get 586.57 × 1010 = 5.86 × 1012 miles in a light year (which is roughly 6 trillion miles—a heck of a lot of miles). So if the star is 60 light-years away, its distance in miles is 6 × 101 × 5.86 × 1012 = 35.16 × 1013 = 3.516 × 1014 miles.
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