### Figuring for Yourself

The text says a star does not change its mass very much during the course of its main-sequence lifetime. While it is on the main sequence, a star converts about 10% of the hydrogen initially present into helium (remember it’s only the core of the star that is hot enough for fusion). Look in earlier chapters to find out what percentage of the hydrogen mass involved in fusion is lost because it is converted to energy. By how much does the mass of the whole star change as a result of fusion? Were we correct to say that the mass of a star does not change significantly while it is on the main sequence?

The text explains that massive stars have shorter lifetimes than low-mass stars. Even though massive stars have more fuel to burn, they use it up faster than low-mass stars. You can check and see whether this statement is true. The lifetime of a star is directly proportional to the amount of mass (fuel) it contains and inversely proportional to the rate at which it uses up that fuel (i.e., to its luminosity). Since the lifetime of the Sun is about 10^{10} y, we have the following relationship:

$T={10}^{10}\frac{M}{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{y}$

where *T* is the lifetime of a main-sequence star, *M* is its mass measured in terms of the mass of the Sun, and *L* is its luminosity measured in terms of the Sun’s luminosity.

- Explain in words why this equation works.
- Use the data in Table 18.3 to calculate the ages of the main-sequence stars listed.
- Do low-mass stars have longer main-sequence lifetimes?
- Do you get the same answers as those in Table 22.1?

You can use the equation in Exercise 22.34 to estimate the approximate ages of the clusters in Figure 22.10, Figure 22.12, and Figure 22.13. Use the information in the figures to determine the luminosity of the most massive star still on the main sequence. Now use the data in Table 18.3 to estimate the mass of this star. Then calculate the age of the cluster. This method is similar to the procedure used by astronomers to obtain the ages of clusters, except that they use actual data and model calculations rather than simply making estimates from a drawing. How do your ages compare with the ages in the text?

You can estimate the age of the planetary nebula in image (c) in Figure 22.18. The diameter of the nebula is 600 times the diameter of our own solar system, or about 0.8 light-year. The gas is expanding away from the star at a rate of about 25 mi/s. Considering that distance = velocity $\times $ time, calculate how long ago the gas left the star if its speed has been constant the whole time. Make sure you use consistent units for time, speed, and distance.

If star A has a core temperature *T*, and star B has a core temperature 3*T*, how does the rate of fusion of star A compare to the rate of fusion of star B?