The solar system includes many objects that are much smaller than the planets and their larger moons. The rocky ones are generally called asteroids. Ceres is the largest asteroid; about 15 are larger than 250 kilometers and about 100,000 are larger than 1 kilometer. Most are in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The presence of asteroid families in the belt indicates that many asteroids are the remnants of ancient collisions and fragmentation. The asteroids include both primitive and differentiated objects. Most asteroids are classed as C-type, meaning they are composed of carbonaceous materials. Dominating the inner belt are S-type (stony) asteroids, with a few M-type (metallic) ones. We have spacecraft images of several asteroids and returned samples from three asteroids. Recent observations have detected a number of asteroid moons, making it possible to measure the masses and densities of the asteroids they orbit. The two largest asteroids, Ceres and Vesta, have been extensively studied from orbit by the Dawn spacecraft.
13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and near-Earth objects (NEOs) in general, are of interest in part because of their potential to hit Earth. They are on unstable orbits, and on timescales of 100 million years, they will either impact one of the terrestrial planets or the Sun, or be ejected. Most of them probably come from the asteroid belt, but some may be dead comets. NASA’s Spaceguard Survey has found 90% of the NEAs larger than 1 kilometer, and none of the ones found so far are on a collision course with Earth. Scientists are actively working on possible technologies for planetary defense in case any NEOs are found on a collision course with Earth years in advance. For now, the most important task is to continue our surveys, so we can find the next Earth impactor before it finds us.
13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
Halley first showed that some comets are on closed orbits and return periodically to swing around the Sun. The heart of a comet is its nucleus, a few kilometers in diameter and composed of volatiles (primarily frozen H2O) and solids (including both silicates and carbonaceous materials). Whipple first suggested this “dirty snowball” model in 1950; it has been confirmed by spacecraft studies of several comets. As the nucleus approaches the Sun, its volatiles evaporate (perhaps in localized jets or explosions) to form the comet’s head or atmosphere, which escapes at about 1 kilometer per second. The atmosphere streams away from the Sun to form a long tail. The ESA Rosetta mission to Comet P67 (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) has greatly increased our knowledge of the nature of the nucleus and of the process by which comets release water and other volatiles when heated by sunlight.
13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
Oort proposed in 1950 that long-period comets are derived from what we now call the Oort cloud, which surrounds the Sun out to about 50,000 AU (near the limit of the Sun’s gravitational sphere of influence) and contains between 1012 and 1013 comets. Comets also come from the Kuiper belt, a disk-shaped region beyond the orbit of Neptune, extending to 50 AU from the Sun. Comets are primitive bodies left over from the formation of the outer solar system. Once a comet is diverted into the inner solar system, it typically survives no more than a few thousand perihelion passages before losing all its volatiles. Some comets die spectacular deaths: Shoemaker-Levy 9, for example, broke into 20 pieces before colliding with Jupiter in 1994.