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Astronomy

12.3 Titan and Triton

Astronomy12.3 Titan and Triton
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Nature of Astronomy
    3. 1.2 The Nature of Science
    4. 1.3 The Laws of Nature
    5. 1.4 Numbers in Astronomy
    6. 1.5 Consequences of Light Travel Time
    7. 1.6 A Tour of the Universe
    8. 1.7 The Universe on the Large Scale
    9. 1.8 The Universe of the Very Small
    10. 1.9 A Conclusion and a Beginning
    11. For Further Exploration
  3. 2 Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 2.1 The Sky Above
    3. 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
    4. 2.3 Astrology and Astronomy
    5. 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  4. 3 Orbits and Gravity
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
    4. 3.3 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    5. 3.4 Orbits in the Solar System
    6. 3.5 Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft
    7. 3.6 Gravity with More Than Two Bodies
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  5. 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 4.1 Earth and Sky
    3. 4.2 The Seasons
    4. 4.3 Keeping Time
    5. 4.4 The Calendar
    6. 4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
    7. 4.6 Ocean Tides and the Moon
    8. 4.7 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  6. 5 Radiation and Spectra
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 5.1 The Behavior of Light
    3. 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    4. 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
    5. 5.4 The Structure of the Atom
    6. 5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
    7. 5.6 The Doppler Effect
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  7. 6 Astronomical Instruments
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 6.1 Telescopes
    3. 6.2 Telescopes Today
    4. 6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
    5. 6.4 Radio Telescopes
    6. 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
    7. 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  8. 7 Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
    3. 7.2 Composition and Structure of Planets
    4. 7.3 Dating Planetary Surfaces
    5. 7.4 Origin of the Solar System
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  9. 8 Earth as a Planet
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 8.1 The Global Perspective
    3. 8.2 Earth’s Crust
    4. 8.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
    5. 8.4 Life, Chemical Evolution, and Climate Change
    6. 8.5 Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of Earth
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  10. 9 Cratered Worlds
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 9.1 General Properties of the Moon
    3. 9.2 The Lunar Surface
    4. 9.3 Impact Craters
    5. 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
    6. 9.5 Mercury
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  11. 10 Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 10.1 The Nearest Planets: An Overview
    3. 10.2 The Geology of Venus
    4. 10.3 The Massive Atmosphere of Venus
    5. 10.4 The Geology of Mars
    6. 10.5 Water and Life on Mars
    7. 10.6 Divergent Planetary Evolution
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  12. 11 The Giant Planets
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 11.1 Exploring the Outer Planets
    3. 11.2 The Giant Planets
    4. 11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  13. 12 Rings, Moons, and Pluto
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 12.1 Ring and Moon Systems Introduced
    3. 12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
    4. 12.3 Titan and Triton
    5. 12.4 Pluto and Charon
    6. 12.5 Planetary Rings
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  14. 13 Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 13.1 Asteroids
    3. 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
    4. 13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
    5. 13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  15. 14 Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 14.1 Meteors
    3. 14.2 Meteorites: Stones from Heaven
    4. 14.3 Formation of the Solar System
    5. 14.4 Comparison with Other Planetary Systems
    6. 14.5 Planetary Evolution
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  16. 15 The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
    3. 15.2 The Solar Cycle
    4. 15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
    5. 15.4 Space Weather
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  17. 16 The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 16.1 Sources of Sunshine: Thermal and Gravitational Energy
    3. 16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
    4. 16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
    5. 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  18. 17 Analyzing Starlight
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 17.1 The Brightness of Stars
    3. 17.2 Colors of Stars
    4. 17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
    5. 17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  19. 18 The Stars: A Celestial Census
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 18.1 A Stellar Census
    3. 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
    4. 18.3 Diameters of Stars
    5. 18.4 The H–R Diagram
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  20. 19 Celestial Distances
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 19.1 Fundamental Units of Distance
    3. 19.2 Surveying the Stars
    4. 19.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
    5. 19.4 The H–R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  21. 20 Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
    3. 20.2 Interstellar Gas
    4. 20.3 Cosmic Dust
    5. 20.4 Cosmic Rays
    6. 20.5 The Life Cycle of Cosmic Material
    7. 20.6 Interstellar Matter around the Sun
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  22. 21 The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 21.1 Star Formation
    3. 21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
    4. 21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
    5. 21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
    6. 21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
    7. 21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  23. 22 Stars from Adolescence to Old Age
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 22.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Red Giants
    3. 22.2 Star Clusters
    4. 22.3 Checking Out the Theory
    5. 22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
    6. 22.5 The Evolution of More Massive Stars
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  24. 23 The Death of Stars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
    3. 23.2 Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish
    4. 23.3 Supernova Observations
    5. 23.4 Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars
    6. 23.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
    7. 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  25. 24 Black Holes and Curved Spacetime
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
    3. 24.2 Spacetime and Gravity
    4. 24.3 Tests of General Relativity
    5. 24.4 Time in General Relativity
    6. 24.5 Black Holes
    7. 24.6 Evidence for Black Holes
    8. 24.7 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  26. 25 The Milky Way Galaxy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 25.1 The Architecture of the Galaxy
    3. 25.2 Spiral Structure
    4. 25.3 The Mass of the Galaxy
    5. 25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
    6. 25.5 Stellar Populations in the Galaxy
    7. 25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  27. 26 Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 26.1 The Discovery of Galaxies
    3. 26.2 Types of Galaxies
    4. 26.3 Properties of Galaxies
    5. 26.4 The Extragalactic Distance Scale
    6. 26.5 The Expanding Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  28. 27 Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 27.1 Quasars
    3. 27.2 Supermassive Black Holes: What Quasars Really Are
    4. 27.3 Quasars as Probes of Evolution in the Universe
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  29. 28 The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies
    3. 28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei
    4. 28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
    5. 28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter
    6. 28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  30. 29 The Big Bang
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 29.1 The Age of the Universe
    3. 29.2 A Model of the Universe
    4. 29.3 The Beginning of the Universe
    5. 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
    6. 29.5 What Is the Universe Really Made Of?
    7. 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
    8. 29.7 The Anthropic Principle
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  31. 30 Life in the Universe
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
    3. 30.2 Astrobiology
    4. 30.3 Searching for Life beyond Earth
    5. 30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  32. A | How to Study for an Introductory Astronomy Class
  33. B | Astronomy Websites, Images, and Apps
  34. C | Scientific Notation
  35. D | Units Used in Science
  36. E | Some Useful Constants for Astronomy
  37. F | Physical and Orbital Data for the Planets
  38. G | Selected Moons of the Planets
  39. H | Future Total Eclipses
  40. I | The Nearest Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and White Dwarfs
  41. J | The Brightest Twenty Stars
  42. K | The Chemical Elements
  43. L | The Constellations
  44. M | Star Chart and Sky Event Resources
  45. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain how the thick atmosphere of Titan makes bodies of liquid on its surface possible
  • Describe what we learned from the landing on Titan with the Huygens probe
  • Discuss the features we observed on the surface of Triton when Voyager 2 flew by

We shift our attention now to small worlds in the more distant parts of the solar system. Saturn’s large moon Titan turns out to be a weird cousin of Earth, with many similarities in spite of frigid temperatures. The Cassini observations of Titan have provided some of the most exciting recent discoveries in planetary science. Neptune’s moon Triton also has unusual characteristics and resembles Pluto, which we will discuss in the following section.

Titan, a Moon with Atmosphere and Hydrocarbon Lakes

Titan, first seen in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens, was the first moon discovered after Galileo saw the four large moons of Jupiter. Titan has roughly the same diameter, mass, and density as Callisto or Ganymede. Presumably it also has a similar composition—about half ice and half rock. However, Titan is unique among moons, with a thick atmosphere and lakes and rivers and falling rain (although these are not composed of water but of hydrocarbons such as ethane and methane, which can stay liquid at the frigid temperatures on Titan).

The 1980 Voyager flyby of Titan determined that the surface density of its atmosphere is four times greater than that on Earth. The atmospheric pressure on this moon is 1.6 bars, higher than that on any other moon and, remarkably, even higher than that of the terrestrial planets Mars and Earth. The atmospheric composition is primarily nitrogen, an important way in which Titan’s atmosphere resembles Earth’s.

Also detected in Titan’s atmosphere were carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (compounds of hydrogen and carbon) such as methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and propane (C3H8), and nitrogen compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), cyanogen (C2N2), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N). Their presence indicates an active chemistry in which sunlight interacts with atmospheric nitrogen and methane to create a rich mix of organic molecules. There are also multiple layers of hydrocarbon haze and clouds in the atmosphere, as illustrated in Figure 12.12.

A graph of the structure of Titan’s atmosphere. The x-axis is labeled “Temperature (K)” and ranges from 0 at the origin to 180. The y-axis is labeled “Height above Titan’s Surface (km)” and ranges from 0 to 600. The left side of the graph is labeled “Pressure (bar)” and ranges from 1.6 to 10 to the negative 5. A red line labeled “Temperature” starts at approximately 90 K, 0 km, and 1.6 bar, moves leftward to around 20 K, 80 km, and 1 bar, then increases exponentially to the right, ending at approximately 160 K, 600 km, and 10 to the negative 5 bar. The background of the graph shows the different layers of the atmosphere, and is labeled “methane or ethane” at approximately 100 km, “Particulate rain?” at approximately 270 km, “Thick photochemical haze” at approximately 320 km, N_2 CH_4 at approximately 430 km, and “thin haze layer” at approximately 550 km.
Figure 12.12 Structure of Titan’s Atmosphere. Some characteristics of Titan’s atmosphere resemble those of Earth’s atmosphere, although it is much colder than our planet. The red line indicates the temperature of Titan’s atmosphere at different altitudes.

These Voyager discoveries motivated a much more ambitious exploration program using the NASA Cassini Saturn orbiter and a probe to land on Titan called Huygens, built by the European Space Agency. The orbiter, which included several cameras, spectrometers, and a radar imaging system, made dozens of close flybys of Titan between 2004 and 2015, each yielding radar and infrared images of portions of the surface (see Exploring the Outer Planets). The Huygens probe successfully descended by parachute through the atmosphere, photographing the surface from below the clouds, and landing on January 14, 2005. This was the first (and so far the only) spacecraft landing on a moon in the outer solar system.

At the end of its parachute descent, the 319-kilogram Huygens probe safely touched down, slid a short distance, and began sending data back to Earth, including photos and analyses of the atmosphere. It appeared to have landed on a flat, boulder-strewn plain, but both the surface and the boulders were composed of water ice, which is as hard as rock at the temperature of Titan (see Figure 12.13).

The photos taken during descent showed a variety of features, including drainage channels, suggesting that Huygens had landed on the shore of an ancient hydrocarbon lake. The sky was deep orange, and the brightness of the Sun was a thousand times less than sunlight on Earth (but still more than a hundred times brighter than under the full moon on Earth). Titan’s surface temperature was 94 K (−179 °C). The warmer spacecraft heated enough of the ice where it landed for its instruments to measure released hydrocarbon gas. Measurements on the surface continued for more than an hour before the probe succumbed to the frigid temperature.

Surface views of Titan at different altitudes. Four images on the left: the top is from a distance of 150 km and the terrain looks very flat. The next is from a distance of 15 km looks very mountainous and rugged. The last two are from 2 km and 0.4 km, and show two mountains. The image on the right is a view of Titan’s surface, showing boulder-like objects made of ice.
Figure 12.13 Views of the Surface of Titan. The left image shows the views of Titan from the descent camera, in a flattened projection, at different altitudes. The right image, taken after landing, shows a boulder-strewn surface illuminated by faint reddish sunlight. The boulders are composed of water ice. (credit left: modification of work by ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona; credit right: modification of work by ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona; processed by Andrey Pivovarov)

Radar and infrared imaging of Titan from the Cassini orbiter gradually built up a picture of a remarkably active surface on this moon, complex and geologically young (Figure 12.14). There are large methane lakes near the polar regions that interact with the methane in the atmosphere, much as Earth’s water oceans interact with the water vapor in our atmosphere. The presence of many erosional features indicates that atmospheric methane can condense and fall as rain, then flow down valleys to the big lakes. Thus, Titan has a low-temperature equivalent of the water cycle on Earth, with liquid on the surface that evaporates, forms clouds, and then condenses to fall as rain—but on Titan the liquid is a combination of methane, ethane, and a trace of other hydrocarbons. It is a weirdly familiar and yet utterly alien landscape.

Two overhead images of lakes on Titan. The image on the left shows a number of liquid lakes on Titan’s surface. Rough terrain surrounds the lakes. The image on the right shows an area of Titan’s surface with high ridges and narrow erosion channels that resemble rivers.
Figure 12.14 Titan’s Lakes. (a) This Cassini image from a September 2006 flyby shows the liquid lakes on Titan. Their composition is most likely a combination of methane and ethane. (Since this is a radar image, the colors are artificially added. The dark blue areas are the smooth surfaces of the liquid lakes, and yellow is the rougher solid terrain around them.) (b) This mosaic of Titan’s surface from the Cassini-Huygens mission shows in detail a high ridge area and many narrow, sinuous erosion channels that appear to be part of a widespread network of “rivers” carved by flowing hydrocarbons. (credit a: modification of work by NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS; credit b; modification of work by NASA/JPL/ESA/University of Arizona)

These discoveries raise the question of whether there could be life on Titan. Hydrocarbons are fundamental for the formation of the large carbon molecules that are essential to life on our planet. However, the temperature on Titan is far too low for liquid water or for many of the chemical processes that are essential to life as we know it. There remains, though, an intriguing possibility that Titan might have developed a different form of low-temperature carbon-based life that could operate with liquid hydrocarbons playing the role of water. The discovery of such “life as we don’t know it” could be even more exciting than finding life like ours on Mars. If such a truly alien life is present on Titan, its existence would greatly expand our understanding of the nature of life and of habitable environments.

Triton and Its Volcanoes

Neptune’s largest moon Triton (don’t get its name confused with Titan) has a diameter of 2720 kilometers and a density of 2.1 g/cm3, indicating that it’s probably composed of about 75% rock mixed with 25% water ice. Measurements indicate that Triton’s surface has the coldest temperature of any of the worlds our robot representatives have visited. Because its reflectivity is so high (about 80%), Triton reflects most of the solar energy that falls on it, resulting in a surface temperature between 35 and 40 K.

The surface material of Triton is made of frozen water, nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide. Methane and nitrogen exist as gas in most of the solar system, but they are frozen at Triton’s temperatures. Only a small quantity of nitrogen vapor persists to form an atmosphere. Although the surface pressure of this atmosphere is only 16 millionths of a bar, this is sufficient to support thin haze or cloud layers.

Triton’s surface, like that of many other moons in the outer solar system, reveals a long history of geological evolution (Figure 12.15). Although some impact craters are found, many regions have been flooded fairly recently by the local version of “lava” (perhaps water or water-ammonia mixtures). There are also mysterious regions of jumbled or mountainous terrain.

An image of Neptune’s Moon Triton. At the bottom of the image is the southern polar cap.
Figure 12.15 Neptune’s Moon Triton. This mosaic of Voyager 2 images of Triton shows a wide range of surface features. The pinkish area at the bottom is Triton’s large southern polar cap. The south pole of Triton faces the Sun here, and the slight heating effect is driving some of the material northward, where it is colder. (credit: modification of work by NASA/JPL/USGS)

The Voyager flyby of Triton took place at a time when the moon’s southern pole was tipped toward the Sun, allowing this part of the surface to enjoy a period of relative warmth. (Remember that “warm” on Triton is still outrageously colder than anything we experience on Earth.) A polar cap covers much of Triton’s southern hemisphere, apparently evaporating along the northern edge. This polar cap may consist of frozen nitrogen that was deposited during the previous winter.

Remarkably, the Voyager images showed that the evaporation of Triton’s polar cap generates geysers or volcanic plumes of nitrogen gas (see Figure 12.16). (Fountains of such gas rose about 10 kilometers high, visible in the thin atmosphere because dust from the surface rose with them and colored them dark.) These plumes differ from the volcanic plumes of Io in their composition and also in that they derive their energy from sunlight warming the surface rather than from internal heat.

A close-up image of Triton’s geysers, with long trains of dust in the lower right.
Figure 12.16 Triton’s Geysers. This close-up view shows some of the geysers on Neptune’s moon Triton, with the long trains of dust pointing to the lower right in this picture. (credit: modification of work by NASA/JPL)
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