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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Nature of Astronomy
    3. 1.2 The Nature of Science
    4. 1.3 The Laws of Nature
    5. 1.4 Numbers in Astronomy
    6. 1.5 Consequences of Light Travel Time
    7. 1.6 A Tour of the Universe
    8. 1.7 The Universe on the Large Scale
    9. 1.8 The Universe of the Very Small
    10. 1.9 A Conclusion and a Beginning
    11. For Further Exploration
  3. 2 Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 2.1 The Sky Above
    3. 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
    4. 2.3 Astrology and Astronomy
    5. 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  4. 3 Orbits and Gravity
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
    4. 3.3 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    5. 3.4 Orbits in the Solar System
    6. 3.5 Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft
    7. 3.6 Gravity with More Than Two Bodies
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  5. 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 4.1 Earth and Sky
    3. 4.2 The Seasons
    4. 4.3 Keeping Time
    5. 4.4 The Calendar
    6. 4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
    7. 4.6 Ocean Tides and the Moon
    8. 4.7 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  6. 5 Radiation and Spectra
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 5.1 The Behavior of Light
    3. 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    4. 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
    5. 5.4 The Structure of the Atom
    6. 5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
    7. 5.6 The Doppler Effect
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  7. 6 Astronomical Instruments
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 6.1 Telescopes
    3. 6.2 Telescopes Today
    4. 6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
    5. 6.4 Radio Telescopes
    6. 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
    7. 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  8. 7 Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
    3. 7.2 Composition and Structure of Planets
    4. 7.3 Dating Planetary Surfaces
    5. 7.4 Origin of the Solar System
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  9. 8 Earth as a Planet
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 8.1 The Global Perspective
    3. 8.2 Earth’s Crust
    4. 8.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
    5. 8.4 Life, Chemical Evolution, and Climate Change
    6. 8.5 Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of Earth
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  10. 9 Cratered Worlds
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 9.1 General Properties of the Moon
    3. 9.2 The Lunar Surface
    4. 9.3 Impact Craters
    5. 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
    6. 9.5 Mercury
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  11. 10 Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 10.1 The Nearest Planets: An Overview
    3. 10.2 The Geology of Venus
    4. 10.3 The Massive Atmosphere of Venus
    5. 10.4 The Geology of Mars
    6. 10.5 Water and Life on Mars
    7. 10.6 Divergent Planetary Evolution
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  12. 11 The Giant Planets
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 11.1 Exploring the Outer Planets
    3. 11.2 The Giant Planets
    4. 11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  13. 12 Rings, Moons, and Pluto
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 12.1 Ring and Moon Systems Introduced
    3. 12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
    4. 12.3 Titan and Triton
    5. 12.4 Pluto and Charon
    6. 12.5 Planetary Rings (and Enceladus)
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  14. 13 Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 13.1 Asteroids
    3. 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
    4. 13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
    5. 13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  15. 14 Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 14.1 Meteors
    3. 14.2 Meteorites: Stones from Heaven
    4. 14.3 Formation of the Solar System
    5. 14.4 Comparison with Other Planetary Systems
    6. 14.5 Planetary Evolution
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  16. 15 The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
    3. 15.2 The Solar Cycle
    4. 15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
    5. 15.4 Space Weather
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  17. 16 The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 16.1 Sources of Sunshine: Thermal and Gravitational Energy
    3. 16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
    4. 16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
    5. 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  18. 17 Analyzing Starlight
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 17.1 The Brightness of Stars
    3. 17.2 Colors of Stars
    4. 17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
    5. 17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  19. 18 The Stars: A Celestial Census
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 18.1 A Stellar Census
    3. 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
    4. 18.3 Diameters of Stars
    5. 18.4 The H–R Diagram
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  20. 19 Celestial Distances
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 19.1 Fundamental Units of Distance
    3. 19.2 Surveying the Stars
    4. 19.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
    5. 19.4 The H–R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  21. 20 Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
    3. 20.2 Interstellar Gas
    4. 20.3 Cosmic Dust
    5. 20.4 Cosmic Rays
    6. 20.5 The Life Cycle of Cosmic Material
    7. 20.6 Interstellar Matter around the Sun
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  22. 21 The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 21.1 Star Formation
    3. 21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
    4. 21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
    5. 21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
    6. 21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
    7. 21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  23. 22 Stars from Adolescence to Old Age
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 22.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Red Giants
    3. 22.2 Star Clusters
    4. 22.3 Checking Out the Theory
    5. 22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
    6. 22.5 The Evolution of More Massive Stars
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  24. 23 The Death of Stars
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
    3. 23.2 Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish
    4. 23.3 Supernova Observations
    5. 23.4 Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars
    6. 23.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
    7. 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  25. 24 Black Holes and Curved Spacetime
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
    3. 24.2 Spacetime and Gravity
    4. 24.3 Tests of General Relativity
    5. 24.4 Time in General Relativity
    6. 24.5 Black Holes
    7. 24.6 Evidence for Black Holes
    8. 24.7 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  26. 25 The Milky Way Galaxy
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 25.1 The Architecture of the Galaxy
    3. 25.2 Spiral Structure
    4. 25.3 The Mass of the Galaxy
    5. 25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
    6. 25.5 Stellar Populations in the Galaxy
    7. 25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. For Further Exploration
    11. Collaborative Group Activities
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  27. 26 Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 26.1 The Discovery of Galaxies
    3. 26.2 Types of Galaxies
    4. 26.3 Properties of Galaxies
    5. 26.4 The Extragalactic Distance Scale
    6. 26.5 The Expanding Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  28. 27 Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 27.1 Quasars
    3. 27.2 Supermassive Black Holes: What Quasars Really Are
    4. 27.3 Quasars as Probes of Evolution in the Universe
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. For Further Exploration
    8. Collaborative Group Activities
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  29. 28 The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies
    3. 28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei
    4. 28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
    5. 28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter
    6. 28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. For Further Exploration
    10. Collaborative Group Activities
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  30. 29 The Big Bang
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 29.1 The Age of the Universe
    3. 29.2 A Model of the Universe
    4. 29.3 The Beginning of the Universe
    5. 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
    6. 29.5 What Is the Universe Really Made Of?
    7. 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
    8. 29.7 The Anthropic Principle
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. For Further Exploration
    12. Collaborative Group Activities
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  31. 30 Life in the Universe
    1. Thinking Ahead
    2. 30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
    3. 30.2 Astrobiology
    4. 30.3 Searching for Life beyond Earth
    5. 30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. For Further Exploration
    9. Collaborative Group Activities
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Questions
      2. Thought Questions
      3. Figuring for Yourself
  32. A | How to Study for an Introductory Astronomy Class
  33. B | Astronomy Websites, Images, and Apps
  34. C | Scientific Notation
  35. D | Units Used in Science
  36. E | Some Useful Constants for Astronomy
  37. F | Physical and Orbital Data for the Planets
  38. G | Selected Moons of the Planets
  39. H | Future Total Eclipses
  40. I | The Nearest Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and White Dwarfs
  41. J | The Brightest Twenty Stars
  42. K | The Chemical Elements
  43. L | The Constellations
  44. M | Star Chart and Sky Event Resources
  45. Index
A
absorption spectrum 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
active galactic nuclei (AGN) 27.1 Quasars
active galaxies 27.1 Quasars
adaptive optics 6.2 Telescopes Today
Amino acids 30.2 Astrobiology
Ant Nebula Thinking Ahead
anthropic principle 29.7 The Anthropic Principle
apertures 6.1 Telescopes
apparent magnitudes 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
apparent solar time 4.3 Keeping Time
Arecibo Observatory 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Aristarchus 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
association 22.2 Star Clusters
astrobiology 30.2 Astrobiology
astronomical unit (AU) 3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion
Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Australia Telescope Compact Array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
B
B–V index 17.2 Colors of Stars
Big Telescope Altazimuth 6.2 Telescopes Today
Brookhaven National Laboratory 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
C
C-type asteroids 13.1 Asteroids
calendar 4.4 The Calendar
Callisto’s surface 12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Carrington Event 15.4 Space Weather
celestial equator 2.1 The Sky Above
celestial poles 2.1 The Sky Above
celestial sphere 2.1 The Sky Above
charge-coupled devices (CCDs) 6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
Cherenkov Telescope Array 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
chromatic aberration 6.1 Telescopes
circumpolar zone 2.1 The Sky Above
color index 17.2 Colors of Stars
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
conservation of angular momentum 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
continuous spectrum 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
coordinates 4.1 Earth and Sky
Copernican principle 30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
coronal hole 15.4 Space Weather
coronal mass ejection (CME) 15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
cosmic microwave background (CMB) 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
cosmological constant 29.1 The Age of the Universe
crater counts 9.3 Impact Craters
critical density 29.2 A Model of the Universe
Curtis 27.1 Quasars
D
declination 4.1 Earth and Sky
detector 6.1 Telescopes
differential galactic rotation 25.2 Spiral Structure
differential rotation 15.2 The Solar Cycle
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 30.2 Astrobiology
dwarf planet 12.4 Pluto and Charon
E
Eagle Nebula 21.1 Star Formation
Earth’s interior 8.1 The Global Perspective
Earth’s magnetic field 8.1 The Global Perspective
Earth’s magnetosphere 8.1 The Global Perspective
Earth’s surface 8.1 The Global Perspective
eclipsing binary 18.3 Diameters of Stars
Effelsberg 100-m Telescope 6.4 Radio Telescopes
electromagnetic radiation 5.1 The Behavior of Light
electromagnetic spectrum 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Elliptical galaxies 26.2 Types of Galaxies
emission spectrum 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
equivalence principle 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
escape velocity 24.5 Black Holes
European Extremely Large Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today, 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
expanding universe 26.5 The Expanding Universe
extremophile 30.2 Astrobiology
eyepiece 6.1 Telescopes
G
Gemini North 6.2 Telescopes Today
Gemini South 6.2 Telescopes Today
general theory of relativity 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
geocentric 2.1 The Sky Above
giant impact hypothesis 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
Giant Magellan Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
giant molecular clouds 21.1 Star Formation
Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Gran Telescopio Canarias 6.2 Telescopes Today
grand unified theories 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
gravitational redshift 24.4 Time in General Relativity
great circle 4.1 Earth and Sky
Green Bank Telescope 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Gregorian calendar 4.4 The Calendar
H
H II region 20.2 Interstellar Gas
habitable environment 30.2 Astrobiology
Hale Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
Hat Creek Radio Observatory 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Herbig-Haro (HH) object 21.1 Star Formation
Hobby–Eberly Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
hydrostatic equilibrium 16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
I
igneous rock 8.2 Earth’s Crust
inflationary universe 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph 15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
Interference 6.4 Radio Telescopes
interferometer 6.4 Radio Telescopes
interferometer array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
International Astronomical Union 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
International Date Line 4.3 Keeping Time
International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
interstellar extinction 20.3 Cosmic Dust
interstellar mass 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
interstellar medium (ISM) 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
interstellar molecules 20.2 Interstellar Gas
inverse square law 5.1 The Behavior of Light
irregular galaxy 26.2 Types of Galaxies
Itokawa 13.1 Asteroids
J
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 6.4 Radio Telescopes
James Webb Space Telescope 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
Jansky Very Large Array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Janssen 6.1 Telescopes
L
Large Binocular Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today, 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
light pollution 6.2 Telescopes Today
line broadening 26.3 Properties of Galaxies
Lippershey 6.1 Telescopes
Little Ice Age 15.4 Space Weather
long-duration gamma-ray burst 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
Lovell Telescope 6.4 Radio Telescopes
lunar history 9.2 The Lunar Surface
M
M-type asteroids 13.1 Asteroids
Magellan Telescopes 6.2 Telescopes Today
magnetic field 11.2 The Giant Planets
magnetogram 15.2 The Solar Cycle
main-sequence stars 18.4 The H–R Diagram
main-sequence turnoff 22.3 Checking Out the Theory
martian meteorites 10.4 The Geology of Mars
mass-luminosity relation 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
Maunder Minimum 15.4 Space Weather
Maxwell Mountains 14.5 Planetary Evolution
mean solar time 4.3 Keeping Time
Mercury’s composition 9.5 Mercury
Mercury’s orbit 9.5 Mercury
Mercury’s rotation 9.5 Mercury
Mercury’s surface 9.5 Mercury
MESSENGER 9.5 Mercury
Metamorphic rocks 8.2 Earth’s Crust
meteor shower 14.1 Meteors, 14.1 Meteors
Miller-Urey 30.2 Astrobiology
Moon’s highlands 9.2 The Lunar Surface
Moon’s origin 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
Moon’s surface 9.2 The Lunar Surface
Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Multi-Mirror Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
N
near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
near-Earth objects (NEOs) 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
Neptune’s Great Dark Spot 11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
New Horizons 12.4 Pluto and Charon
Newton’s first law 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
Newton’s second law 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
Newton’s third law 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
Nobeyama Radio Observatory 6.4 Radio Telescopes
P
Parkes Observatory 6.4 Radio Telescopes
Pauli exclusion principle 23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
photon decoupling time 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
Plate tectonics 8.2 Earth’s Crust
prime focus 6.1 Telescopes
primitive rock 8.2 Earth’s Crust
protogalactic cloud 25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
S
S-type asteroids 13.1 Asteroids
scarps 9.5 Mercury
Schwarzschild 24.5 Black Holes
Sedimentary rocks 8.2 Earth’s Crust
selection effect 18.1 A Stellar Census
Seyfert 27.1 Quasars
short-duration gamma-ray burst 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
sidereal day 4.3 Keeping Time
singularity 24.5 Black Holes
solar day 4.3 Keeping Time
solar dynamo 15.2 The Solar Cycle
solstice 4.2 The Seasons
Southern African Large Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
space weather 15.4 Space Weather
spectral line 15.2 The Solar Cycle
spectroscopic binary 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
spiral arms 25.2 Spiral Structure
Square Kilometre Array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
star cluster 22.2 Star Clusters
star diameter 18.3 Diameters of Stars
star formation 21.1 Star Formation
Stefan-Boltzmann law 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
stellar association 22.2 Star Clusters, 22.2 Star Clusters
stellar color 17.2 Colors of Stars
stellar temperature 17.2 Colors of Stars
stellar wind 21.1 Star Formation
stromatolites 30.2 Astrobiology
Subaru Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
subduction 8.2 Earth’s Crust
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
sunspot maxima 15.2 The Solar Cycle
sunspot minima 15.2 The Solar Cycle
supergiant stars 18.3 Diameters of Stars
supermassive black holes 25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
supernova 1987A 23.3 Supernova Observations
synchronous rotation 4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
synchrotron radiation 11.2 The Giant Planets
T
T Tauri star 21.1 Star Formation
thermophile 30.2 Astrobiology
Thirty-Meter Telescope 6.2 Telescopes Today
time zones 4.3 Keeping Time
Titan’s atmosphere 12.3 Titan and Triton
Titan’s surface 12.3 Titan and Triton
trans-Neptunian object 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
triple-alpha process 22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
Triton’s surface 12.3 Titan and Triton
V
Very Long Baseline Array 6.4 Radio Telescopes
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