Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo
Astronomy 2e

For Further Exploration

Astronomy 2eFor Further Exploration


The Moon

Barbuzano, J. “The Moon Mess.” Sky & Telescope (August 2018): 26. On figuring out the details of the giant impact hypothesis for the Moon’s origin.

Beatty, J. “NASA Slams the Moon.” Sky & Telescope (February 2010): 28. The impact of the LCROSS mission on the Moon and what we learned from it.

Bell, T. “Warning: Dust Ahead.” Astronomy (March 2006): 46. What we know about lunar dust and the problems it can cause.

Canup, R. “The Moon’s Violent Origin.” Astronomy (November 2019): 44. On the giant impact hypothesis.

Cokinos, C. “Looking for Ice in the Dark.” Sky & Telescope (January 2021): 34. Missions to search for water ice in shadowed craters on the Moon.

Dorminey, B. “Secrets beneath the Moon’s Surface.” Astronomy (March 2011): 24. A nice timeline of the Moon’s evolution and the story of how we are finding out more about its internal structure.

Eicher, D. “Michael Collins Remembers Apollo 11.” Astronomy (July 2019): 24. Interview with the astronaut, followed by summary of and images from the first Moon-landing mission.

Evans, B. “The Moon’s Farside Unveiled.” Astronomy (October 2020): 24. Luna 3 and modern views of the side of the Moon facing away from us.

Shirao, M. “Kayuga’s High Def Highlights.” Sky & Telescope (February 2010): 20. Results from the Japanese mission to the Moon, with high-definition TV cameras.

Shubinski, R. “Mapping the Moon.” Astronomy (June 2022): 40. The history of mapping our satellite from the first telescopes through today.

Wadhwa, M. “What Are We Learning from the Moon Rocks?” Astronomy (June 2013): 54. Very nice discussion of how the rocks tell us about Moon’s composition, age, and origin.

Wood, J. “The First Lunar Samples: The Science of Apollo.” Sky & Telescope (July 2019): 14. What analysis of the moon rocks revealed.

Zastrow, M. “Chang’e 5 Rewrites Lunar History.” Astronomy (April 2022): 40. On the Chinese mission to Oceanus Procellarum and its sample return.

Zimmerman, R. “How Much Water is on the Moon?” Astronomy (January 2014): 50. Results from the LRO’s instruments and good overview of issue.


Evans, B. “Voyage to a World of Extremes.” Astronomy (November 2018): 20. What we know and what the BepiColombo mission will try to learn.

Lakdawalla, E. “Return to the Iron Planet.” Sky & Telescope (November 2018): 22. On what we know about Mercury and on the BepiColombo mission to explore further.

“Mercury: Meet the Planet Nearest the Sun.” Sky & Telescope (March 2014): 39. Four-page pictorial introduction, including the MESSENGER probe’s full map of the planet.

Oberg, J. “Torrid Mercury’s Icy Poles.” Astronomy (December 2013): 30. A nice overview of results from MESSENGER mission, including the ice in polar craters.

Sheehan, W. “The Strange History of Mercury’s Spots.” Astronomy (April 2022): 52. Schiaparelli’s observations of the planet’s surface markings.

Sheehan, W., and Dobbins, T. “Mesmerized by Mercury.” Sky & Telescope (June 2000): 109. History of Mercury observations and how amateur astronomers can contribute.

Talcott, R. “Surprises from MESSENGER’s Historic Mercury Fly-by.” Astronomy (March 2009): 28.


The Moon

Apollo Lunar Surface Journal: Information, interviews, maps, photos, video and audio clips, and more on each of the Apollo landing missions.

Lunar & Planetary Institute: Summary of lunar missions and timelines.

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Page:

NASA Artemis Mission Pages: and

NASA Data Center Website:

Nine Planets Website:

Planetary Society Website:

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program:

To the Moon: Pages to accompany the PBS program on the Apollo landings and what it took to achieve them.

Science@NASA Website:

Sky & Telescope magazine’s observing guides and articles about the Moon:


BepiColombo Mission pages (European Space Agency):

MESSENGER Mission Website:

NASA Data Center Website:

Nine Planets Website:

Planetary Society Website:

Science@NASA Website:


The Moon

Evolution of the Moon: Produced by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter team, tracing the development of the Moon, from its origin to the Moon we see today (2:53).

Exploring the Presence of Water on the Moon: Narrated by astronomer Jim Green, this video explains the LCROSS mission to detect water and what we might do with it (4:01).

Man on the Moon: Hoax or No Hoax: Laura Danly and Patrick So of Griffith Observatory explain how we know the Apollo landings really took place (32:08; start at 6:00)

Tour of the Moon: A narrated tour based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and data (4:56).

Water on the Moon: Brief summary of how the LCROSS mission found water on the Moon and where it might come from (1:38).

Where Did the Moon Come From: Nicely produced recreation and explanation of the giant impact theory of the Moon’s origin, narrated by space scientist Maggie Aderin-Pocock (3:06).


Mercury: The Scorched Planet (BBC Earth Science Video): Discusses the planet and the Messenger mission (10:21).

Mercury Visualized from Messenger: A turning globe of Mercury, in black and white, showing detail from the Messenger mission, with music (0:50).

Planet Mercury (European Space Agency): Introduction to what we know and what the BepiColombo mission hopes to learn (3:13).

Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jan 23, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.