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28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies

When we look at distant galaxies, we are looking back in time. We have now seen galaxies as they were when the universe was about 300 million years old—only about two percent as old as it is now. The universe now is 13.8 billion years old. The color of a galaxy is an indicator of the age of the stars that populate it. Blue galaxies must contain a lot of hot, massive, young stars. Galaxies that contain only old stars tend to be yellowish red. The first generation of stars formed when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. Galaxies observed when the universe was only a few billion years old tend to be smaller than today’s galaxies, to have more irregular shapes, and to have more rapid star formation than the galaxies we see nearby in today’s universe. This shows that the smaller galaxy fragments assembled themselves into the larger galaxies we see today.

28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei

When galaxies of comparable size collide and coalesce we call it a merger, but when a small galaxy is swallowed by a much larger one, we use the term galactic cannibalism. Collisions play an important role in the evolution of galaxies. If the collision involves at least one galaxy rich in interstellar matter, the resulting compression of the gas will result in a burst of star formation, leading to a starburst galaxy. Mergers were much more common when the universe was young, and many of the most distant galaxies that we see are starburst galaxies that are involved in collisions. Active galactic nuclei powered by supermassive black holes in the centers of most galaxies can have major effects on the host galaxy, including shutting off star formation.

28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space

Counts of galaxies in various directions establish that the universe on the large scale is homogeneous and isotropic (the same everywhere and the same in all directions, apart from evolutionary changes with time). The sameness of the universe everywhere is referred to as the cosmological principle. Galaxies are grouped together in clusters. The Milky Way Galaxy is a member of the Local Group, which contains at least 54 member galaxies. Rich clusters (such as Virgo and Coma) contain thousands or tens of thousands of galaxies. Galaxy clusters often group together with other clusters to form large-scale structures called superclusters, which can extend over distances of several hundred million light-years. Clusters and superclusters are found in filamentary structures that are huge but fill only a small fraction of space. Most of space consists of large voids between superclusters, with nearly all galaxies confined to less than 10% of the total volume.

28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter

Stars move much faster in their orbits around the centers of galaxies, and galaxies around centers of galaxy clusters, than they should according to the gravity of all the luminous matter (stars, gas, and dust) astronomers can detect. This discrepancy implies that galaxies and galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter rather than normal luminous matter. Gravitational lensing and X-ray radiation from massive galaxy clusters confirm the presence of dark matter. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies contain about 10 times more dark matter than luminous matter. While some of the dark matter may be made up of ordinary matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons), perhaps in the form of very faint stars or black holes, most of it probably consists of some totally new type of particle not yet detected on Earth. Observations of gravitational lensing effects on distant objects have been used to look in the outer region of our Galaxy for any dark matter in the form of compact, dim stars or star remnants, but not enough such objects have been found to account for all the dark matter.

28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe

Initially, luminous and dark matter in the universe was distributed almost—but not quite—uniformly. The challenge for galaxy formation theories is to show how this “not quite” smooth distribution of matter developed the structures—galaxies and galaxy clusters—that we see today. It is likely that the filamentary distribution of galaxies and voids was built in near the beginning, before stars and galaxies began to form. The first condensations of matter were about the mass of a large star cluster or a small galaxy. These smaller structures then merged over cosmic time to form large galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and superclusters of galaxies. Superclusters today are still gathering up more galaxies, gas, and dark matter. And spiral galaxies like the Milky Way are still acquiring material by capturing small galaxies near them.

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