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Astronomy 2e

For Further Exploration

Astronomy 2eFor Further Exploration



Aguirre, E. “Hubble Zooms in on Jupiter’s New Red Spot.” Sky & Telescope (August 2006): 26. On patterns that develop in Jupiter’s chaotic atmosphere.

Evans, B. “How Juno Unmasked Jupiter.” Astronomy (August 2022): 16. On mission results and images.

Hansen-Koharcheck, C. “Junocam at Jupiter: Where Science Meets Art.” Sky & Telescope (May 2019): 14. Juno mission images, as interpreted by various image processors.

Talcott, R. “JWST Sets its Sights on Jupiter.” Astronomy (February 2023): 36. On new Webb infrared images of the giant planet.


Kruesi, L. “Cassini Unveils Saturn.” Astronomy (March 2018): 20. What the mission taught us.

McEwen, A. “Cassini Unveils Saturn.” Astronomy (July 2006): 30. A report on the first two years of discoveries in the Saturn system.

Spilker, L. “Saturn Revolution.” Astronomy (October 2008): 34. On results from the Cassini mission.

Talcott, R. “Saturn’s Sweet Surprises.” Astronomy (June 2007): 52. On Cassini mission results.

Uranus and Neptune

Bakich, M. “Observe the Ice Giants (Uranus & Neptune).” Astronomy (October 2019): 52. How to observe the two outer planets in amateur telescopes.

Bell, T. “Discovering Neptune: What Really Happened.” Sky & Telescope (September 2022): 32. New details about the prediction and discovery of the 8th planet.

Cowling, T. “Big Blue: The Twin Worlds of Uranus and Neptune.” Astronomy (October 1990): 42. Nice, long review of the two planets.

Croswell, K. “Uranus and Neptune: The Neglected Planets.” Sky & Telescope (December 2019): 16. Introduction to the ice-giant planets and their moons.

Davis, J. “The Mystery and Majesty of the Ice Giants.” Astronomy (December 2020): 40. Review of what Voyager taught us about both planets, what we would like to learn, and possible future missions.

Lakdawalla, E. “Sights Set on Uranus” Sky & Telescope (July 2023): 14. What we know and on future missions to the planet now being envisioned.

Sheehan, W. “Finding Neptune.” Astronomy (February 2022): 26. History of its discovery.


Missions to the Giant Planets

Cassini-Huygens Mission Site at European Space Agency:

Cassini Mission Site at the Jet Propulsion Lab:

NASA Galileo Mission Site:

NASA’s Juno Mission to Jupiter: or

Voyager Mission Site at the Jet Propulsion Lab:


NASA Data Center Website:

NASA’s Solar System Exploration Site:

Nine Planets Website:

Planetary Society Website:


NASA Data Center Website:

NASA’s Solar System Exploration Site:

Nine Planets Website:

Planetary Society Website:

Uranus and Neptune

Neptune at NASA Data Center Website:

Neptune at NASA’s Solar System Exploration Site:

Neptune at Nine Planets Site:

Neptune at Planetary Society Website:

Uranus at NASA Data Center Website:

Uranus at NASA’s Solar System Exploration Site:

Uranus at Nine Planets Site:

Uranus at Planetary Society Website:


Cassini: 15 Years of Exploration: A quick visual summary of mission highlights (2:00).

Cassini’s Grand Finale: JPL video describes the accomplishments and final descent into Saturn of this mission (4:00).

Fly into the Great Red Spot of Jupiter: A remarkable 2017 NASA animation from Juno data, flying above and into the Red Spot, with a bar showing your altitude (1:00).

Four Days at Saturn: Cassini was focused on the planet Saturn for 44 hours to obtain this labeled, sped-up movie of changes in its atmosphere (2:00).

Hubble Watches Dark Spot on Neptune Die: Hubble observations of changes in the atmosphere of Neptune, with nice images (3:00).

In the Land of Enchantment: The Epic Story of the Cassini Mission to Saturn: Inspiring illustrated lecture by Cassini Mission Imagining Lead Scientist Carolyn Porco (1:38).

Jupiter Globe Rotation: Beautiful 2014 video showing the rotation of Jupiter with its many atmospheric features, made from Hubble Space Telescope photos (1:00).

Jupiter’s Magnetosphere: 2011 video about the magnetosphere of Jupiter and why we continue to be interested in it, featuring astronomer Fran Bagenal (2:00).

Jupiter, the Largest Planet: Very dramatic 2010 introduction to the planet, produced with Science on a Sphere (7:00).

Lightning Across the Solar System: NASA’s 2019 video compares lightning on Earth with giant lightning bolts at Jupiter and Saturn (4:00).

New Science from Jupiter: Brief 2018 review of the first Juno mission results, from NASA, with amazing images (5:00).

Saturn’s Stunning Double Show: HubbleCast #33 from 2010: what we learned about the aurorae at both its poles when Saturn’s rings were edge-on to us (5:00).

Voyager's Last Encounter: 1989 overview of Voyager 2 at Neptune: with results and quotes by mission scientists (4:00).

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