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Anatomy and Physiology

Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
20.

The joint between adjacent vertebrae that includes an invertebral disc is classified as which type of joint?

  1. diarthrosis
  2. multiaxial
  3. amphiarthrosis
  4. synarthrosis
21.

Which of these joints is classified as a synarthrosis?

  1. the pubic symphysis
  2. the manubriosternal joint
  3. an invertebral disc
  4. the shoulder joint
22.

Which of these joints is classified as a biaxial diarthrosis?

  1. the metacarpophalangeal joint
  2. the hip joint
  3. the elbow joint
  4. the pubic symphysis
23.

Synovial joints ________.

  1. may be functionally classified as a synarthrosis
  2. are joints where the bones are connected to each other by hyaline cartilage
  3. may be functionally classified as a amphiarthrosis
  4. are joints where the bones articulate with each other within a fluid-filled joint cavity
24.

Which type of fibrous joint connects the tibia and fibula?

  1. syndesmosis
  2. symphysis
  3. suture
  4. gomphosis
25.

An example of a wide fibrous joint is ________.

  1. the interosseous membrane of the forearm
  2. a gomphosis
  3. a suture joint
  4. a synostosis
26.

A gomphosis ________.

  1. is formed by an interosseous membrane
  2. connects the tibia and fibula bones of the leg
  3. contains a joint cavity
  4. anchors a tooth to the jaw
27.

A syndesmosis is ________.

  1. a narrow fibrous joint
  2. the type of joint that unites bones of the skull
  3. a fibrous joint that unites parallel bones
  4. the type of joint that anchors the teeth in the jaws
28.

A cartilaginous joint ________.

  1. has a joint cavity
  2. is called a symphysis when the bones are united by fibrocartilage
  3. anchors the teeth to the jaws
  4. is formed by a wide sheet of fibrous connective tissue
29.

A synchondrosis is ________.

  1. found at the pubic symphysis
  2. where bones are connected together with fibrocartilage
  3. a type of fibrous joint
  4. found at the first sternocostal joint of the thoracic cage
30.

Which of the following are joined by a symphysis?

  1. adjacent vertebrae
  2. the first rib and the sternum
  3. the end and shaft of a long bone
  4. the radius and ulna bones
31.

The epiphyseal plate of a growing long bone in a child is classified as a ________.

  1. synchondrosis
  2. synostosis
  3. symphysis
  4. syndesmosis
32.

Which type of joint provides the greatest range of motion?

  1. ball-and-socket
  2. hinge
  3. condyloid
  4. plane
33.

Which type of joint allows for only uniaxial movement?

  1. saddle joint
  2. hinge joint
  3. condyloid joint
  4. ball-and-socket joint
34.

Which of the following is a type of synovial joint?

  1. a synostosis
  2. a suture
  3. a plane joint
  4. a synchondrosis
35.

A bursa ________.

  1. surrounds a tendon at the point where the tendon crosses a joint
  2. secretes the lubricating fluid for a synovial joint
  3. prevents friction between skin and bone, or a muscle tendon and bone
  4. is the strong band of connective tissue that holds bones together at a synovial joint
36.

At synovial joints, ________.

  1. the articulating ends of the bones are directly connected by fibrous connective tissue
  2. the ends of the bones are enclosed within a space called a subcutaneous bursa
  3. intrinsic ligaments are located entirely inside of the articular capsule
  4. the joint cavity is filled with a thick, lubricating fluid
37.

At a synovial joint, the synovial membrane ________.

  1. forms the fibrous connective walls of the joint cavity
  2. is the layer of cartilage that covers the articulating surfaces of the bones
  3. forms the intracapsular ligaments
  4. secretes the lubricating synovial fluid
38.

Condyloid joints ________.

  1. are a type of ball-and-socket joint
  2. include the radiocarpal joint
  3. are a uniaxial diarthrosis joint
  4. are found at the proximal radioulnar joint
39.

A meniscus is ________.

  1. a fibrocartilage pad that provides padding between bones
  2. a fluid-filled space that prevents friction between a muscle tendon and underlying bone
  3. the articular cartilage that covers the ends of a bone at a synovial joint
  4. the lubricating fluid within a synovial joint
40.

The joints between the articular processes of adjacent vertebrae can contribute to which movement?

  1. lateral flexion
  2. circumduction
  3. dorsiflexion
  4. abduction
41.

Which motion moves the bottom of the foot away from the midline of the body?

  1. elevation
  2. dorsiflexion
  3. eversion
  4. plantar flexion
42.

Movement of a body region in a circular movement at a condyloid joint is what type of motion?

  1. rotation
  2. elevation
  3. abduction
  4. circumduction
43.

Supination is the motion that moves the ________.

  1. hand from the palm backward position to the palm forward position
  2. foot so that the bottom of the foot faces the midline of the body
  3. hand from the palm forward position to the palm backward position
  4. scapula in an upward direction
44.

Movement at the shoulder joint that moves the upper limb laterally away from the body is called ________.

  1. elevation
  2. eversion
  3. abduction
  4. lateral rotation
45.

The primary support for the glenohumeral joint is provided by the ________.

  1. coracohumeral ligament
  2. glenoid labrum
  3. rotator cuff muscles
  4. subacromial bursa
46.

The proximal radioulnar joint ________.

  1. is supported by the annular ligament
  2. contains an articular disc that strongly unites the bones
  3. is supported by the ulnar collateral ligament
  4. is a hinge joint that allows for flexion/extension of the forearm
47.

Which statement is true concerning the knee joint?

  1. The lateral meniscus is an intrinsic ligament located on the lateral side of the knee joint.
  2. Hyperextension is resisted by the posterior cruciate ligament.
  3. The anterior cruciate ligament supports the knee when it is flexed and weight bearing.
  4. The medial meniscus is attached to the tibial collateral ligament.
48.

The ankle joint ________.

  1. is also called the subtalar joint
  2. allows for gliding movements that produce inversion/eversion of the foot
  3. is a uniaxial hinge joint
  4. is supported by the tibial collateral ligament on the lateral side
49.

Which region of the vertebral column has the greatest range of motion for rotation?

  1. cervical
  2. thoracic
  3. lumbar
  4. sacral
50.

Intramembranous ossification ________.

  1. gives rise to the bones of the limbs
  2. produces the bones of the top and sides of the skull
  3. produces the bones of the face and base of the skull
  4. involves the conversion of a hyaline cartilage model into bone
51.

Synovial joints ________.

  1. are derived from fontanelles
  2. are produced by intramembranous ossification
  3. develop at an interzone site
  4. are produced by endochondral ossification
52.

Endochondral ossification is ________.

  1. the process that replaces hyaline cartilage with bone tissue
  2. the process by which mesenchyme differentiates directly into bone tissue
  3. completed before birth
  4. the process that gives rise to the joint interzone and future joint cavity
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