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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
acetabulum
large, cup-shaped cavity located on the lateral side of the hip bone; formed by the junction of the ilium, pubis, and ischium portions of the hip bone
acromial end of the clavicle
lateral end of the clavicle that articulates with the acromion of the scapula
acromial process
acromion of the scapula
acromioclavicular joint
articulation between the acromion of the scapula and the acromial end of the clavicle
acromion
flattened bony process that extends laterally from the scapular spine to form the bony tip of the shoulder
adductor tubercle
small, bony bump located on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle of the femur
anatomical neck
line on the humerus located around the outside margin of the humeral head
ankle joint
joint that separates the leg and foot portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the talus bone of the foot inferiorly, and the distal end of the tibia, medial malleolus of the tibia, and lateral malleolus of the fibula superiorly
anterior border of the tibia
narrow, anterior margin of the tibia that extends inferiorly from the tibial tuberosity
anterior inferior iliac spine
small, bony projection located on the anterior margin of the ilium, below the anterior superior iliac spine
anterior sacroiliac ligament
strong ligament between the sacrum and the ilium portions of the hip bone that supports the anterior side of the sacroiliac joint
anterior superior iliac spine
rounded, anterior end of the iliac crest
apical ectodermal ridge
enlarged ridge of ectoderm at the distal end of a limb bud that stimulates growth and elongation of the limb
arcuate line of the ilium
smooth ridge located at the inferior margin of the iliac fossa; forms the lateral portion of the pelvic brim
arm
region of the upper limb located between the shoulder and elbow joints; contains the humerus bone
auricular surface of the ilium
roughened area located on the posterior, medial side of the ilium of the hip bone; articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint
base of the metatarsal bone
expanded, proximal end of each metatarsal bone
bicipital groove
intertubercular groove; narrow groove located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
calcaneus
heel bone; posterior, inferior tarsal bone that forms the heel of the foot
capitate
from the lateral side, the third of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid and lunate proximally, the trapezoid laterally, the hamate medially, and primarily with the third metacarpal distally
capitulum
knob-like bony structure located anteriorly on the lateral, distal end of the humerus
carpal bone
one of the eight small bones that form the wrist and base of the hand; these are grouped as a proximal row consisting of (from lateral to medial) the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones, and a distal row containing (from lateral to medial) the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones
carpal tunnel
passageway between the anterior forearm and hand formed by the carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
carpometacarpal joint
articulation between one of the carpal bones in the distal row and a metacarpal bone of the hand
clavicle
collarbone; elongated bone that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum medially and the acromion of the scapula laterally
coracoclavicular ligament
strong band of connective tissue that anchors the coracoid process of the scapula to the lateral clavicle; provides important indirect support for the acromioclavicular joint
coracoid process
short, hook-like process that projects anteriorly and laterally from the superior margin of the scapula
coronoid fossa
depression on the anterior surface of the humerus above the trochlea; this space receives the coronoid process of the ulna when the elbow is maximally flexed
coronoid process of the ulna
projecting bony lip located on the anterior, proximal ulna; forms the inferior margin of the trochlear notch
costoclavicular ligament
band of connective tissue that unites the medial clavicle with the first rib
coxal bone
hip bone
cuboid
tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the calcaneus bone, medially with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones
deltoid tuberosity
roughened, V-shaped region located laterally on the mid-shaft of the humerus
distal radioulnar joint
articulation between the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius
distal tibiofibular joint
articulation between the distal fibula and the fibular notch of the tibia
elbow joint
joint located between the upper arm and forearm regions of the upper limb; formed by the articulations between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius
femur
thigh bone; the single bone of the thigh
fibula
thin, non-weight-bearing bone found on the lateral side of the leg
fibular notch
wide groove on the lateral side of the distal tibia for articulation with the fibula at the distal tibiofibular joint
flexor retinaculum
strong band of connective tissue at the anterior wrist that spans the top of the U-shaped grouping of the carpal bones to form the roof of the carpal tunnel
foot
portion of the lower limb located distal to the ankle joint
forearm
region of the upper limb located between the elbow and wrist joints; contains the radius and ulna bones
fossa
(plural = fossae) shallow depression on the surface of a bone
fovea capitis
minor indentation on the head of the femur that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament to the head of the femur
glenohumeral joint
shoulder joint; formed by the articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus
glenoid cavity
(also, glenoid fossa) shallow depression located on the lateral scapula, between the superior and lateral borders
gluteal tuberosity
roughened area on the posterior side of the proximal femur, extending inferiorly from the base of the greater trochanter
greater pelvis
(also, greater pelvic cavity or false pelvis) broad space above the pelvic brim defined laterally by the fan-like portion of the upper ilium
greater sciatic foramen
pelvic opening formed by the greater sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrum, and the sacrospinous ligament
greater sciatic notch
large, U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the ilium, superior to the ischial spine
greater trochanter
large, bony expansion of the femur that projects superiorly from the base of the femoral neck
greater tubercle
enlarged prominence located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus
hallux
big toe; digit 1 of the foot
hamate
from the lateral side, the fourth of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate and triquetrum proximally, the fourth and fifth metacarpals distally, and the capitate laterally
hand
region of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint
head of the femur
rounded, proximal end of the femur that articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint
head of the fibula
small, knob-like, proximal end of the fibula; articulates with the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
head of the humerus
smooth, rounded region on the medial side of the proximal humerus; articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
head of the metatarsal bone
expanded, distal end of each metatarsal bone
head of the radius
disc-shaped structure that forms the proximal end of the radius; articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the elbow joint, and with the radial notch of the ulna as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
head of the ulna
small, rounded distal end of the ulna; articulates with the ulnar notch of the distal radius, forming the distal radioulnar joint
hip bone
coxal bone; single bone that forms the pelvic girdle; consists of three areas, the ilium, ischium, and pubis
hip joint
joint located at the proximal end of the lower limb; formed by the articulation between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur
hook of the hamate bone
bony extension located on the anterior side of the hamate carpal bone
humerus
single bone of the upper arm
iliac crest
curved, superior margin of the ilium
iliac fossa
shallow depression found on the anterior and medial surfaces of the upper ilium
ilium
superior portion of the hip bone
inferior angle of the scapula
inferior corner of the scapula located where the medial and lateral borders meet
inferior pubic ramus
narrow segment of bone that passes inferiorly and laterally from the pubic body; joins with the ischial ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
infraglenoid tubercle
small bump or roughened area located on the lateral border of the scapula, near the inferior margin of the glenoid cavity
infraspinous fossa
broad depression located on the posterior scapula, inferior to the spine
intercondylar eminence
irregular elevation on the superior end of the tibia, between the articulating surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles
intercondylar fossa
deep depression on the posterior side of the distal femur that separates the medial and lateral condyles
intermediate cuneiform
middle of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the medial cuneiform bone, laterally with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the second metatarsal bone
interosseous border of the fibula
small ridge running down the medial side of the fibular shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the fibula and tibia
interosseous border of the radius
narrow ridge located on the medial side of the radial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius bones
interosseous border of the tibia
small ridge running down the lateral side of the tibial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the tibia and fibula
interosseous border of the ulna
narrow ridge located on the lateral side of the ulnar shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius
interosseous membrane of the forearm
sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the radius and ulna bones
interosseous membrane of the leg
sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the shafts of the tibia and fibula bones
interphalangeal joint
articulation between adjacent phalanx bones of the hand or foot digits
intertrochanteric crest
short, prominent ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the posterior side of the proximal femur
intertrochanteric line
small ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the proximal femur
intertubercular groove (sulcus)
bicipital groove; narrow groove located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
ischial ramus
bony extension projecting anteriorly and superiorly from the ischial tuberosity; joins with the inferior pubic ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
ischial spine
pointed, bony projection from the posterior margin of the ischium that separates the greater sciatic notch and lesser sciatic notch
ischial tuberosity
large, roughened protuberance that forms the posteroinferior portion of the hip bone; weight-bearing region of the pelvis when sitting
ischiopubic ramus
narrow extension of bone that connects the ischial tuberosity to the pubic body; formed by the junction of the ischial ramus and inferior pubic ramus
ischium
posteroinferior portion of the hip bone
knee joint
joint that separates the thigh and leg portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia
lateral border of the scapula
diagonally oriented lateral margin of the scapula
lateral condyle of the femur
smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the lateral expansion of the distal femur
lateral condyle of the tibia
lateral, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
lateral cuneiform
most lateral of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the intermediate cuneiform bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the third metatarsal bone
lateral epicondyle of the femur
roughened area of the femur located on the lateral side of the lateral condyle
lateral epicondyle of the humerus
small projection located on the lateral side of the distal humerus
lateral malleolus
expanded distal end of the fibula
lateral supracondylar ridge
narrow, bony ridge located along the lateral side of the distal humerus, superior to the lateral epicondyle
leg
portion of the lower limb located between the knee and ankle joints
lesser pelvis
(also, lesser pelvic cavity or true pelvis) narrow space located within the pelvis, defined superiorly by the pelvic brim (pelvic inlet) and inferiorly by the pelvic outlet
lesser sciatic foramen
pelvic opening formed by the lesser sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrospinous ligament, and the sacrotuberous ligament
lesser sciatic notch
shallow indentation along the posterior margin of the ischium, inferior to the ischial spine
lesser trochanter
small, bony projection on the medial side of the proximal femur, at the base of the femoral neck
lesser tubercle
small, bony prominence located on anterior side of the proximal humerus
ligament of the head of the femur
ligament that spans the acetabulum of the hip bone and the fovea capitis of the femoral head
limb bud
small elevation that appears on the lateral side of the embryo during the fourth or fifth week of development, which gives rise to an upper or lower limb
linea aspera
longitudinally running bony ridge located in the middle third of the posterior femur
lunate
from the lateral side, the second of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the capitate and hamate distally, the scaphoid laterally, and the triquetrum medially
medial border of the scapula
elongated, medial margin of the scapula
medial condyle of the femur
smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the medial expansion of the distal femur
medial condyle of the tibia
medial, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the medial condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
medial cuneiform
most medial of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, laterally with the intermediate cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the first and second metatarsal bones
medial epicondyle of the femur
roughened area of the distal femur located on the medial side of the medial condyle
medial epicondyle of the humerus
enlarged projection located on the medial side of the distal humerus
medial malleolus
bony expansion located on the medial side of the distal tibia
metacarpal bone
one of the five long bones that form the palm of the hand; numbered 1–5, starting on the lateral (thumb) side of the hand
metacarpophalangeal joint
articulation between the distal end of a metacarpal bone of the hand and a proximal phalanx bone of the thumb or a finger
metatarsal bone
one of the five elongated bones that forms the anterior half of the foot; numbered 1–5, starting on the medial side of the foot
metatarsophalangeal joint
articulation between a metatarsal bone of the foot and the proximal phalanx bone of a toe
midcarpal joint
articulation between the proximal and distal rows of the carpal bones; contributes to movements of the hand at the wrist
navicular
tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the talus bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones
neck of the femur
narrowed region located inferior to the head of the femur
neck of the radius
narrowed region immediately distal to the head of the radius
obturator foramen
large opening located in the anterior hip bone, between the pubis and ischium regions
olecranon fossa
large depression located on the posterior side of the distal humerus; this space receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is fully extended
olecranon process
expanded posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna; forms the bony tip of the elbow
patella
kneecap; the largest sesamoid bone of the body; articulates with the distal femur
patellar surface
smooth groove located on the anterior side of the distal femur, between the medial and lateral condyles; site of articulation for the patella
pectineal line
narrow ridge located on the superior surface of the superior pubic ramus
pectoral girdle
shoulder girdle; the set of bones, consisting of the scapula and clavicle, which attaches each upper limb to the axial skeleton
pelvic brim
pelvic inlet; the dividing line between the greater and lesser pelvic regions; formed by the superior margin of the pubic symphysis, the pectineal lines of each pubis, the arcuate lines of each ilium, and the sacral promontory
pelvic girdle
hip girdle; consists of a single hip bone, which attaches a lower limb to the sacrum of the axial skeleton
pelvic inlet
pelvic brim
pelvic outlet
inferior opening of the lesser pelvis; formed by the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis, right and left ischiopubic rami and sacrotuberous ligaments, and the tip of the coccyx
pelvis
ring of bone consisting of the right and left hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx
phalanx bone of the foot
(plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the toes; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the big toe, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of toes two through five
phalanx bone of the hand
(plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the thumb and fingers; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of the fingers two through five
pisiform
from the lateral side, the fourth of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the anterior surface of the triquetrum
pollex
(also, thumb) digit 1 of the hand
posterior inferior iliac spine
small, bony projection located at the inferior margin of the auricular surface on the posterior ilium
posterior sacroiliac ligament
strong ligament spanning the sacrum and ilium of the hip bone that supports the posterior side of the sacroiliac joint
posterior superior iliac spine
rounded, posterior end of the iliac crest
proximal radioulnar joint
articulation formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the head of the radius
proximal tibiofibular joint
articulation between the head of the fibula and the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
pubic arch
bony structure formed by the pubic symphysis, and the bodies and inferior pubic rami of the right and left pubic bones
pubic body
enlarged, medial portion of the pubis region of the hip bone
pubic symphysis
joint formed by the articulation between the pubic bodies of the right and left hip bones
pubic tubercle
small bump located on the superior aspect of the pubic body
pubis
anterior portion of the hip bone
radial fossa
small depression located on the anterior humerus above the capitulum; this space receives the head of the radius when the elbow is maximally flexed
radial notch of the ulna
small, smooth area on the lateral side of the proximal ulna; articulates with the head of the radius as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
radial tuberosity
oval-shaped, roughened protuberance located on the medial side of the proximal radius
radiocarpal joint
wrist joint, located between the forearm and hand regions of the upper limb; articulation formed proximally by the distal end of the radius and the fibrocartilaginous pad that unites the distal radius and ulna bone, and distally by the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum carpal bones
radius
bone located on the lateral side of the forearm
sacroiliac joint
joint formed by the articulation between the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and ilium
sacrospinous ligament
ligament that spans the sacrum to the ischial spine of the hip bone
sacrotuberous ligament
ligament that spans the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity of the hip bone
scaphoid
from the lateral side, the first of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the trapezoid, trapezium, and capitate distally, and the lunate medially
scapula
shoulder blade bone located on the posterior side of the shoulder
shaft of the femur
cylindrically shaped region that forms the central portion of the femur
shaft of the fibula
elongated, slender portion located between the expanded ends of the fibula
shaft of the humerus
narrow, elongated, central region of the humerus
shaft of the radius
narrow, elongated, central region of the radius
shaft of the tibia
triangular-shaped, central portion of the tibia
shaft of the ulna
narrow, elongated, central region of the ulna
soleal line
small, diagonally running ridge located on the posterior side of the proximal tibia
spine of the scapula
prominent ridge passing mediolaterally across the upper portion of the posterior scapular surface
sternal end of the clavicle
medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
sternoclavicular joint
articulation between the manubrium of the sternum and the sternal end of the clavicle; forms the only bony attachment between the pectoral girdle of the upper limb and the axial skeleton
styloid process of the radius
pointed projection located on the lateral end of the distal radius
styloid process of the ulna
short, bony projection located on the medial end of the distal ulna
subpubic angle
inverted V-shape formed by the convergence of the right and left ischiopubic rami; this angle is greater than 80 degrees in females and less than 70 degrees in males
subscapular fossa
broad depression located on the anterior (deep) surface of the scapula
superior angle of the scapula
corner of the scapula between the superior and medial borders of the scapula
superior border of the scapula
superior margin of the scapula
superior pubic ramus
narrow segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium
supraglenoid tubercle
small bump located at the superior margin of the glenoid cavity
suprascapular notch
small notch located along the superior border of the scapula, medial to the coracoid process
supraspinous fossa
narrow depression located on the posterior scapula, superior to the spine
surgical neck
region of the humerus where the expanded, proximal end joins with the narrower shaft
sustentaculum tali
bony ledge extending from the medial side of the calcaneus bone
talus
tarsal bone that articulates superiorly with the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint; also articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone and anteriorly with the navicular bone
tarsal bone
one of the seven bones that make up the posterior foot; includes the calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, and lateral cuneiform bones
thigh
portion of the lower limb located between the hip and knee joints
tibia
shin bone; the large, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg
tibial tuberosity
elevated area on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia
trapezium
from the lateral side, the first of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the first and second metacarpals distally, and the trapezoid medially
trapezoid
from the lateral side, the second of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the second metacarpal distally, the trapezium laterally, and the capitate medially
triquetrum
from the lateral side, the third of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate laterally, the hamate distally, and has a facet for the pisiform
trochlea
pulley-shaped region located medially at the distal end of the humerus; articulates at the elbow with the trochlear notch of the ulna
trochlear notch
large, C-shaped depression located on the anterior side of the proximal ulna; articulates at the elbow with the trochlea of the humerus
ulna
bone located on the medial side of the forearm
ulnar notch of the radius
shallow, smooth area located on the medial side of the distal radius; articulates with the head of the ulna at the distal radioulnar joint
ulnar tuberosity
roughened area located on the anterior, proximal ulna inferior to the coronoid process
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