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Anatomy and Physiology

Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
1.

Which function of the skeletal system would be especially important if you were in a car accident?

  1. storage of minerals
  2. protection of internal organs
  3. facilitation of movement
  4. fat storage
2.

Bone tissue can be described as ________.

  1. dead calcified tissue
  2. cartilage
  3. the skeletal system
  4. dense, hard connective tissue
3.

Without red marrow, bones would not be able to ________.

  1. store phosphate
  2. store calcium
  3. make blood cells
  4. move like levers
4.

Yellow marrow has been identified as ________.

  1. an area of fat storage
  2. a point of attachment for muscles
  3. the hard portion of bone
  4. the cause of kyphosis
5.

Which of the following can be found in areas of movement?

  1. hematopoiesis
  2. cartilage
  3. yellow marrow
  4. red marrow
6.

The skeletal system is made of ________.

  1. muscles and tendons
  2. bones and cartilage
  3. vitreous humor
  4. minerals and fat
7.

Most of the bones of the arms and hands are long bones; however, the bones in the wrist are categorized as ________.

  1. flat bones
  2. short bones
  3. sesamoid bones
  4. irregular bones
8.

Sesamoid bones are found embedded in ________.

  1. joints
  2. muscles
  3. ligaments
  4. tendons
9.

Bones that surround the spinal cord are classified as ________ bones.

  1. irregular
  2. sesamoid
  3. flat
  4. short
10.

Which category of bone is among the most numerous in the skeleton?

  1. long bone
  2. sesamoid bone
  3. short bone
  4. flat bone
11.

Long bones enable body movement by acting as a ________.

  1. counterweight
  2. resistive force
  3. lever
  4. fulcrum
12.

Which of the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis?

  1. bone growth
  2. bone remodeling
  3. hematopoiesis
  4. shock absorption
13.

The diaphysis contains ________.

  1. the metaphysis
  2. fat stores
  3. spongy bone
  4. compact bone
14.

The fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of the bone is the ________.

  1. periosteum
  2. epiphysis
  3. endosteum
  4. diaphysis
15.

Which of the following are incapable of undergoing mitosis?

  1. osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  2. osteocytes and osteoclasts
  3. osteoblasts and osteocytes
  4. osteogenic cells and osteoclasts
16.

Which cells do not originate from osteogenic cells?

  1. osteoblasts
  2. osteoclasts
  3. osteocytes
  4. osteoprogenitor cells
17.

Which of the following are found in compact bone and cancellous bone?

  1. Haversian systems
  2. Haversian canals
  3. lamellae
  4. lacunae
18.

Which of the following are only found in cancellous bone?

  1. canaliculi
  2. Volkmann’s canals
  3. trabeculae
  4. calcium salts
19.

The area of a bone where the nutrient foramen passes forms what kind of bone marking?

  1. a hole
  2. a facet
  3. a canal
  4. a fissure
20.

Why is cartilage slow to heal?

  1. because it eventually develops into bone
  2. because it is semi-solid and flexible
  3. because it does not have a blood supply
  4. because endochondral ossification replaces all cartilage with bone
21.

Why are osteocytes spread out in bone tissue?

  1. They develop from mesenchymal cells.
  2. They are surrounded by osteoid.
  3. They travel through the capillaries.
  4. Formation of osteoid spreads out the osteoblasts that formed the ossification centers.
22.

In endochondral ossification, what happens to the chondrocytes?

  1. They develop into osteocytes.
  2. They die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity.
  3. They grow and form the periosteum.
  4. They group together to form the primary ossification center.
23.

Which of the following bones is (are) formed by intramembranous ossification?

  1. the metatarsals
  2. the femur
  3. the ribs
  4. the flat bones of the cranium
24.

Bones grow in length due to activity in the ________.

  1. epiphyseal plate
  2. perichondrium
  3. periosteum
  4. medullary cavity
25.

Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation ________.

  1. in the medullary cavity
  2. beneath the periosteum
  3. in the epiphyseal plate
  4. within the metaphysis
26.

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of zones in the epiphyseal plate?

  1. proliferation, reserved, maturation, calcification
  2. maturation, proliferation, reserved, calcification
  3. calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved
  4. calcification, reserved, proliferation, maturation
27.

A fracture can be both ________.

  1. open and closed
  2. open and transverse
  3. transverse and greenstick
  4. greenstick and comminuted
28.

How can a fractured diaphysis release fat globules into the bloodstream?

  1. The bone pierces fat stores in the skin.
  2. The yellow marrow in the diaphysis is exposed and damaged.
  3. The injury triggers the body to release fat from healthy bones.
  4. The red marrow in the fractured bone releases fat to heal the fracture.
29.

In a compound fracture, ________.

  1. the break occurs at an angle to the bone
  2. the broken bone does not tear the skin
  3. one fragment of broken bone is compressed into the other
  4. broken bone pierces the skin
30.

The internal and external calli are replaced by ________.

  1. hyaline cartilage
  2. trabecular bone
  3. osteogenic cells
  4. osteoclasts
31.

The first type of bone to form during fracture repair is ________ bone.

  1. compact
  2. lamellar
  3. spongy
  4. dense
32.

Wolff’s law, which describes the effect of mechanical forces in bone modeling/remodeling, would predict that ________

  1. a right-handed pitcher will have thicker bones in his right arm compared to his left.
  2. a right-handed cyclist will have thicker bones in her right leg compared to her left.
  3. a broken bone will heal thicker than it was before the fracture.
  4. a bed-ridden patient will have thicker bones than an athlete.
33.

Calcium cannot be absorbed from the small intestine if ________ is lacking.

  1. vitamin D
  2. vitamin K
  3. calcitonin
  4. fluoride
34.

Which one of the following foods is best for bone health?

  1. carrots
  2. liver
  3. leafy green vegetables
  4. oranges
35.

Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt?

  1. estrogen and testosterone
  2. calcitonin and calcitriol
  3. growth hormone and parathyroid hormone
  4. thyroxine and progesterone
36.

With respect to their direct effects on osseous tissue, which pair of hormones has actions that oppose each other?

  1. estrogen and testosterone
  2. calcitonin and calcitriol
  3. estrogen and progesterone
  4. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
37.

When calcium levels are too high or too low, which body system is primarily affected?

  1. skeletal system
  2. endocrine system
  3. digestive system
  4. nervous system
38.

All of the following play a role in calcium homeostasis except

  1. thyroxine
  2. calcitonin
  3. parathyroid hormone
  4. vitamin D
39.

Which of the following is most likely to be released when blood calcium levels are elevated?

  1. thyroxine
  2. calcitonin
  3. parathyroid hormone
  4. vitamin D
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