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Anatomy and Physiology

Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions


Which of the following is not a type of tissue?

  1. muscle
  2. nervous
  3. embryonic
  4. epithelial

The process by which a less specialized cell matures into a more specialized cell is called ________.

  1. differentiation
  2. maturation
  3. modification
  4. specialization

Differentiated cells in a developing embryo derive from ________.

  1. endothelium, mesothelium, and epithelium
  2. ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  3. connective tissue, epithelial tissue, and muscle tissue
  4. epidermis, mesoderm, and endothelium

Which of the following lines the body cavities exposed to the external environment?

  1. mesothelium
  2. lamina propria
  3. mesenteries
  4. mucosa

In observing epithelial cells under a microscope, the cells are arranged in a single layer and look tall and narrow, and the nucleus is located close to the basal side of the cell. The specimen is what type of epithelial tissue?

  1. columnar
  2. stratified
  3. squamous
  4. transitional

Which of the following is the epithelial tissue that lines the interior of blood vessels?

  1. columnar
  2. pseudostratified
  3. simple squamous
  4. transitional

Which type of epithelial tissue specializes in moving particles across its surface?

  1. transitional
  2. stratified columnar
  3. pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  4. stratified squamous

The ________ exocrine gland stores its secretion until the glandular cell ruptures, whereas the ________ gland releases its apical region and reforms.

  1. holocrine; apocrine
  2. eccrine; endocrine
  3. apocrine; holocrine
  4. eccrine; apocrine

Connective tissue is made of which three essential components?

  1. cells, ground substance, and carbohydrate fibers
  2. cells, ground substance, and protein fibers
  3. collagen, ground substance, and protein fibers
  4. matrix, ground substance, and fluid

Under the microscope, a tissue specimen shows cells located in spaces scattered in a transparent background. This is probably ________.

  1. loose connective tissue
  2. a tendon
  3. bone
  4. hyaline cartilage

Which connective tissue specializes in storage of fat?

  1. tendon
  2. adipose tissue
  3. reticular tissue
  4. dense connective tissue

Ligaments connect bones together and withstand a lot of stress. What type of connective tissue should you expect ligaments to contain?

  1. areolar tissue
  2. adipose tissue
  3. dense regular connective tissue
  4. dense irregular connective tissue

In adults, new connective tissue cells originate from the ________.

  1. mesoderm
  2. mesenchyme
  3. ectoderm
  4. endoderm

In bone, the main cells are ________.

  1. fibroblasts
  2. chondrocytes
  3. lymphocytes
  4. osteocytes

Striations, cylindrical cells, and multiple nuclei are observed in ________.

  1. skeletal muscle only
  2. cardiac muscle only
  3. smooth muscle only
  4. skeletal and cardiac muscles

The cells of muscles, myocytes, develop from ________.

  1. myoblasts
  2. endoderm
  3. fibrocytes
  4. chondrocytes

Skeletal muscle is composed of very hard working cells. Which organelles do you expect to find in abundance in skeletal muscle cell?

  1. nuclei
  2. striations
  3. golgi bodies
  4. mitochondria

The cells responsible for the transmission of the nerve impulse are ________.

  1. neurons
  2. oligodendrocytes
  3. astrocytes
  4. microglia

The nerve impulse travels down a(n) ________, away from the cell body.

  1. dendrite
  2. axon
  3. microglia
  4. collagen fiber

Which of the following central nervous system cells regulate ions, regulate the uptake and/or breakdown of some neurotransmitters, and contribute to the formation of the blood-brain barrier?

  1. microglia
  2. neuroglia
  3. oligodendrocytes
  4. astrocytes

Which of the following processes is not a cardinal sign of inflammation?

  1. redness
  2. heat
  3. fever
  4. swelling

When a mast cell reacts to an irritation, which of the following chemicals does it release?

  1. collagen
  2. histamine
  3. hyaluronic acid
  4. meylin

Atrophy refers to ________.

  1. loss of elasticity
  2. loss of mass
  3. loss of rigidity
  4. loss of permeability

Individuals can slow the rate of aging by modifying all of these lifestyle aspects except for ________.

  1. diet
  2. exercise
  3. genetic factors
  4. stress
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