Sperm and ova are similar in terms of ________.
- quantity produced per year
- chromosome number
- flagellar motility
Although the male ejaculate contains hundreds of millions of sperm, ________.
- most do not reach the oocyte
- most are destroyed by the alkaline environment of the uterus
- it takes millions to penetrate the outer layers of the oocyte
- most are destroyed by capacitation
As sperm first reach the oocyte, they will contact the ________.
- corona radiata
- sperm-binding receptors
- zona pellucida
Fusion of pronuclei occurs during ________.
Sperm must first complete ________ to enable the fertilization of an oocyte.
- the acrosomal reaction
- the cortical reaction
- the fast block
Cleavage produces daughter cells called ________.
The conceptus, upon reaching the uterus, first ________.
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst is destined to become the ________.
- chorionic villi
Which primary germ layer gave rise to the cells that eventually became the central nervous system?
What would happen if the trophoblast did not secrete hCG upon implantation of the blastocyst?
- The cells would not continue to divide.
- The corpus luteum would continue to produce progesterone and estrogen.
- Menses would flush the blastocyst out of the uterus.
- The uterine mucosa would not envelop the blastocyst.
During what process does the amnion envelop the embryo?
- embryonic folding
The placenta is formed from ________.
- the embryo’s mesenchymal cells
- the mother’s endometrium only
- the mother’s endometrium and the embryo’s chorionic membrane
- the mother’s endometrium and the embryo’s umbilical cord
The foramen ovale causes the fetal circulatory system to bypass the ________.
What happens to the urine excreted by the fetus when the kidneys begin to function?
- The umbilical cord carries it to the placenta for removal.
- The endometrium absorbs it.
- It adds to the amniotic fluid.
- It is turned into meconium.
During weeks 9–12 of fetal development, ________.
- bone marrow begins to assume erythrocyte production
- meconium begins to accumulate in the intestines
- surfactant production begins in the fetal lungs
- the spinal cord begins to be myelinated
Progesterone secreted by the placenta suppresses ________ to prevent maturation of ovarian follicles.
- LH and estrogen
- hCG and FSH
- FSH and LH
- estrogen and hCG
Which of the following is a possible culprit of “morning sickness”?
- increased minute respiration
- decreased intestinal peristalsis
- decreased aldosterone secretion
- increased blood volume
How does the decrease in progesterone at the last weeks of pregnancy help to bring on labor?
- stimulating FSH production
- decreasing the levels of estrogens
- dilating the cervix
- decreasing the inhibition of uterine contractility
Which of these fetal presentations is the easiest for vaginal birth?
- complete breech
- vertex occiput anterior
- frank breech
- vertex occiput posterior
Which of these shunts exists between the right and left atria?
- foramen ovale
- ductus venosus
- ductus arteriosis
- foramen venosus
Why is brown fat important?
- It is the newborn’s primary source of insulation.
- It can be broken down to generate heat for thermoregulation.
- It can be broken down for energy between feedings.
- It can be converted to white fat.
Constriction of umbilical blood vessels during vaginal birth ________.
- causes respiratory alkalosis
- inhibits the respiratory center in the brain
- elevates carbon dioxide levels in the blood
- both a and b
Alveoli are connected to the lactiferous sinuses by ________.
- lactiferous ducts
- nipple pores
How is colostrum most important to a newborn?
- It helps boost the newborn’s immune system.
- It provides much needed fat.
- It satisfies the newborn’s thirst.
- It satisfies the infant’s appetite.
Mature breast milk ________.
- has more sodium than cow’s milk
- has more calcium than cow’s milk
- has more protein than cow’s milk
- has more fat than cow’s milk
Marfan syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Which of the following is true?
- Female offspring are more likely to be carriers of the disease.
- Male offspring are more likely to inherit the disease.
- Male and female offspring have the same likelihood of inheriting the disease.
- Female offspring are more likely to inherit the disease.
In addition to codominance, the ABO blood group antigens are also an example of ________.
- incomplete dominance
- X-linked recessive inheritance
- multiple alleles
- recessive lethal inheritance
Zoe has cystic fibrosis. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
- Zoe probably inherited one faulty allele from her father, who is a carrier, and one normal allele from her mother.
- Zoe probably inherited one faulty allele from her mother, who must also have cystic fibrosis, and one normal allele from her father.
- Zoe must have inherited faulty alleles from both parents, both of whom must also have cystic fibrosis.
- Zoe must have inherited faulty alleles from both parents, both of whom are carriers.