Briefly explain why mature gametes carry only one set of chromosomes.
What special features are evident in sperm cells but not in somatic cells, and how do these specializations function?
What do each of the three male accessory glands contribute to the semen?
Describe how penile erection occurs.
While anabolic steroids (synthetic testosterone) bulk up muscles, they can also affect testosterone production in the testis. Using what you know about negative feedback, describe what would happen to testosterone production in the testis if a male takes large amounts of synthetic testosterone.
Follow the path of ejaculated sperm from the vagina to the oocyte. Include all structures of the female reproductive tract that the sperm must swim through to reach the egg.
Identify some differences between meiosis in men and women.
Explain the hormonal regulation of the phases of the menstrual cycle.
Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue found outside the uterus—in the uterine tubes, on the ovaries, or even in the pelvic cavity. Offer a hypothesis as to why endometriosis increases a woman’s risk of infertility.
Identify the changes in sensitivity that occur in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads as a boy or girl approaches puberty. Explain how these changes lead to the increases of sex steroid hormone secretions that drive many pubertal changes.
Explain how the internal female and male reproductive structures develop from two different duct systems.
Explain what would occur during fetal development to an XY individual with a mutation causing a nonfunctional SRY gene.