Plasma contains more sodium than chloride. How can this be if individual ions of sodium and chloride exactly balance each other out, and plasma is electrically neutral?
How is fluid moved from compartment to compartment?
Describe the effect of ADH on renal collecting tubules.
Why is it important for the amount of water intake to equal the amount of water output?
Explain how the CO2 generated by cells and exhaled in the lungs is carried as bicarbonate in the blood.
How can one have an imbalance in a substance, but not actually have elevated or deficient levels of that substance in the body?
Describe the conservation of bicarbonate ions in the renal system.
Describe the control of blood carbonic acid levels through the respiratory system.
Case Study: Bob is a 64-year-old male admitted to the emergency room for asthma. His laboratory results are as follows: pH 7.31, pCO2 higher than normal, and total HCO3– also higher than normal. Classify his acid-base balance as acidosis or alkalosis, and as metabolic or respiratory. Is there evidence of compensation? Propose the mechanism by which asthma contributed to the lab results seen.
Case Study: Kim is a 38-year-old women admitted to the hospital for bulimia. Her laboratory results are as follows: pH 7.48, pCO2 in the normal range, and total HCO3– higher than normal. Classify her acid-base balance as acidosis or alkalosis, and as metabolic or respiratory. Is there evidence of compensation? Propose the mechanism by which bulimia contributed to the lab results seen.