What is suggested by the presence of white blood cells found in the urine?
Both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus produce large urine volumes, but how would other characteristics of the urine differ between the two diseases?
Why are females more likely to contract bladder infections than males?
Describe how forceful urination is accomplished.
What anatomical structures provide protection to the kidney?
How does the renal portal system differ from the hypothalamo–hypophyseal and digestive portal systems?
Name the structures found in the renal hilum.
Which structures make up the renal corpuscle?
What are the major structures comprising the filtration membrane?
Give the formula for net filtration pressure.
Name at least five symptoms of kidney failure.
Which vessels and what part of the nephron are involved in countercurrent multiplication?
Give the approximate osmolarity of fluid in the proximal convoluted tubule, deepest part of the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting ducts.
Explain what happens to Na+ concentration in the nephron when GFR increases.
If you want the kidney to excrete more Na+ in the urine, what do you want the blood flow to do?
What organs produce which hormones or enzymes in the renin–angiotensin system?
PTH affects absorption and reabsorption of what?
Why is ADH also called vasopressin?
How can glucose be a diuretic?
How does lack of protein in the blood cause edema?
Which three electrolytes are most closely regulated by the kidney?