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Anatomy and Physiology

Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions


Which of these organs is not considered an accessory digestive structure?

  1. mouth
  2. salivary glands
  3. pancreas
  4. liver

Which of the following organs is supported by a layer of adventitia rather than serosa?

  1. esophagus
  2. stomach
  3. small intestine
  4. large intestine

Which of the following membranes covers the stomach?

  1. falciform ligament
  2. mesocolon
  3. parietal peritoneum
  4. visceral peritoneum

Which of these processes occurs in the mouth?

  1. ingestion
  2. mechanical digestion
  3. chemical digestion
  4. all of the above

Which of these processes occurs throughout most of the alimentary canal?

  1. ingestion
  2. propulsion
  3. segmentation
  4. absorption

Which of the following stimuli activates sensors in the walls of digestive organs?

  1. breakdown products of digestion
  2. distension
  3. pH of chyme
  4. all of the above

Which of these statements about reflexes in the GI tract is false?

  1. Short reflexes are provoked by nerves near the GI tract.
  2. Short reflexes are mediated by the enteric nervous system.
  3. Food that distends the stomach initiates long reflexes.
  4. Long reflexes can be provoked by stimuli originating outside the GI tract.

Which of these ingredients in saliva is responsible for activating salivary amylase?

  1. mucus
  2. phosphate ions
  3. chloride ions
  4. urea

Which of these statements about the pharynx is true?

  1. It extends from the nasal and oral cavities superiorly to the esophagus anteriorly.
  2. The oropharynx is continuous superiorly with the nasopharynx.
  3. The nasopharynx is involved in digestion.
  4. The laryngopharynx is composed partially of cartilage.

Which structure is located where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm?

  1. esophageal hiatus
  2. cardiac orifice
  3. upper esophageal sphincter
  4. lower esophageal sphincter

Which phase of deglutition involves contraction of the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis?

  1. voluntary phase
  2. buccal phase
  3. pharyngeal phase
  4. esophageal phase

Which of these cells secrete hormones?

  1. parietal cells
  2. mucous neck cells
  3. enteroendocrine cells
  4. chief cells

Where does the majority of chemical digestion in the stomach occur?

  1. fundus and body
  2. cardia and fundus
  3. body and pylorus
  4. body

During gastric emptying, chyme is released into the duodenum through the ________.

  1. esophageal hiatus
  2. pyloric antrum
  3. pyloric canal
  4. pyloric sphincter

Parietal cells secrete ________.

  1. gastrin
  2. hydrochloric acid
  3. pepsin
  4. pepsinogen

In which part of the alimentary canal does most digestion occur?

  1. stomach
  2. proximal small intestine
  3. distal small intestine
  4. ascending colon

Which of these is most associated with villi?

  1. haustra
  2. lacteals
  3. bacterial flora
  4. intestinal glands

What is the role of the small intestine’s MALT?

  1. secreting mucus
  2. buffering acidic chyme
  3. activating pepsin
  4. preventing bacteria from entering the bloodstream

Which part of the large intestine attaches to the appendix?

  1. cecum
  2. ascending colon
  3. transverse colon
  4. descending colon

Which of these statements about bile is true?

  1. About 500 mL is secreted daily.
  2. Its main function is the denaturation of proteins.
  3. It is synthesized in the gallbladder.
  4. Bile salts are recycled.

Pancreatic juice ________.

  1. deactivates bile.
  2. is secreted by pancreatic islet cells.
  3. buffers chyme.
  4. is released into the cystic duct.

Where does the chemical digestion of starch begin?

  1. mouth
  2. esophagus
  3. stomach
  4. small intestine

Which of these is involved in the chemical digestion of protein?

  1. pancreatic amylase
  2. trypsin
  3. sucrase
  4. pancreatic nuclease

Where are most fat-digesting enzymes produced?

  1. small intestine
  2. gallbladder
  3. liver
  4. pancreas

Which of these nutrients is absorbed mainly in the duodenum?

  1. glucose
  2. iron
  3. sodium
  4. water
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