Anatomy and Physiology

# Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions
4.

Together, just four elements make up more than 95 percent of the body’s mass. These include ________.

1. calcium, magnesium, iron, and carbon
2. oxygen, calcium, iron, and nitrogen
3. sodium, chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen
4. oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
5.

The smallest unit of an element that still retains the distinctive behavior of that element is an ________.

1. electron
2. atom
3. elemental particle
4. isotope
6.

The characteristic that gives an element its distinctive properties is its number of ________.

1. protons
2. neutrons
3. electrons
4. atoms
7.

On the periodic table of the elements, mercury (Hg) has an atomic number of 80 and a mass number of 200.59. It has seven stable isotopes. The most abundant of these probably have ________.

2. fewer than 80 neutrons each
3. more than 80 neutrons each
4. more electrons than neutrons
8.

Nitrogen has an atomic number of seven. How many electron shells does it likely have?

1. one
2. two
3. three
4. four
9.

Which of the following is a molecule, but not a compound?

1. H2O
2. 2H
3. H2
4. H+
10.

A molecule of ammonia contains one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. These are linked with ________.

1. ionic bonds
2. nonpolar covalent bonds
3. polar covalent bonds
4. hydrogen bonds
11.

When an atom donates an electron to another atom, it becomes

1. an ion
2. an anion
3. nonpolar
4. all of the above
12.

A substance formed of crystals of equal numbers of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds is called a(n) ________.

1. noble gas
2. salt
3. electrolyte
4. dipole
13.

Which of the following statements about chemical bonds is true?

1. Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds.
2. Hydrogen bonds occur between two atoms of hydrogen.
3. Bonding readily occurs between nonpolar and polar molecules.
4. A molecule of water is unlikely to bond with an ion.
14.

The energy stored in a foot of snow on a steep roof is ________.

1. potential energy
2. kinetic energy
4. activation energy
15.

The bonding of calcium, phosphorus, and other elements produces mineral crystals that are found in bone. This is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.

1. catabolic
2. synthesis
3. decomposition
4. exchange
16.

$AB→A+B AB→A+B MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagyart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcaaKaaeyqaiaabkeacqGHsgIRcaqGbbGaey4kaSIaaeOqaaaa@3C1D@$ is a general notation for a(n) ________ reaction.

1. anabolic
2. endergonic
3. decomposition
4. exchange
17.

________ reactions release energy.

1. Catabolic
2. Exergonic
3. Decomposition
4. Catabolic, exergonic, and decomposition
18.

Which of the following combinations of atoms is most likely to result in a chemical reaction?

1. hydrogen and hydrogen
2. hydrogen and helium
3. helium and helium
4. neon and helium
19.

Chewing a bite of bread mixes it with saliva and facilitates its chemical breakdown. This is most likely due to the fact that ________.

1. the inside of the mouth maintains a very high temperature
2. chewing stores potential energy
3. chewing facilitates synthesis reactions
4. saliva contains enzymes
20.

CH4 is methane. This compound is ________.

1. inorganic
2. organic
3. reactive
4. a crystal
21.

Which of the following is most likely to be found evenly distributed in water in a homogeneous solution?

1. sodium ions and chloride ions
2. NaCl molecules
3. salt crystals
4. red blood cells
22.

Jenny mixes up a batch of pancake batter, then stirs in some chocolate chips. As she is waiting for the first few pancakes to cook, she notices the chocolate chips sinking to the bottom of the clear glass mixing bowl. The chocolate-chip batter is an example of a ________.

1. solvent
2. solute
3. solution
4. suspension
23.

A substance dissociates into K+ and Cl in solution. The substance is a(n) ________.

1. acid
2. base
3. salt
4. buffer
24.

Ty is three years old and as a result of a “stomach bug” has been vomiting for about 24 hours. His blood pH is 7.48. What does this mean?

1. Ty’s blood is slightly acidic.
2. Ty’s blood is slightly alkaline.
3. Ty’s blood is highly acidic.
4. Ty’s blood is within the normal range
25.

C6H12O6 is the chemical formula for a ________.

1. polymer of carbohydrate
2. pentose monosaccharide
3. hexose monosaccharide
4. all of the above
26.

What organic compound do brain cells primarily rely on for fuel?

1. glucose
2. glycogen
3. galactose
4. glycerol
27.

Which of the following is a functional group that is part of a building block of proteins?

1. phosphate
3. amino
4. ribose
28.

A pentose sugar is a part of the monomer used to build which type of macromolecule?

1. polysaccharides
2. nucleic acids
3. phosphorylated glucose
4. glycogen
29.

A phospholipid ________.

1. has both polar and nonpolar regions
2. is made up of a triglyceride bonded to a phosphate group
3. is a building block of ATP
4. can donate both cations and anions in solution
30.

In DNA, nucleotide bonding forms a compound with a characteristic shape known as a(n) ________.

1. beta chain
2. pleated sheet
3. alpha helix
4. double helix
31.

Uracil ________.

1. contains nitrogen
2. is a pyrimidine
3. is found in RNA
4. all of the above
32.

The ability of an enzyme’s active sites to bind only substrates of compatible shape and charge is known as ________.

1. selectivity
2. specificity
3. subjectivity
4. specialty
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