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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
afterload
force the ventricles must develop to effectively pump blood against the resistance in the vessels
anastomosis
(plural = anastomoses) area where vessels unite to allow blood to circulate even if there may be partial blockage in another branch
anterior cardiac veins
vessels that parallel the small cardiac arteries and drain the anterior surface of the right ventricle; bypass the coronary sinus and drain directly into the right atrium
anterior interventricular artery
(also, left anterior descending artery or LAD) major branch of the left coronary artery that follows the anterior interventricular sulcus
anterior interventricular sulcus
sulcus located between the left and right ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart
aortic valve
(also, aortic semilunar valve) valve located at the base of the aorta
artificial pacemaker
medical device that transmits electrical signals to the heart to ensure that it contracts and pumps blood to the body
atrial reflex
(also, called Bainbridge reflex) autonomic reflex that responds to stretch receptors in the atria that send impulses to the cardioaccelerator area to increase HR when venous flow into the atria increases
atrioventricular (AV) node
clump of myocardial cells located in the inferior portion of the right atrium within the atrioventricular septum; receives the impulse from the SA node, pauses, and then transmits it into specialized conducting cells within the interventricular septum
atrioventricular bundle
(also, bundle of His) group of specialized myocardial conductile cells that transmit the impulse from the AV node through the interventricular septum; form the left and right atrioventricular bundle branches
atrioventricular bundle branches
(also, left or right bundle branches) specialized myocardial conductile cells that arise from the bifurcation of the atrioventricular bundle and pass through the interventricular septum; lead to the Purkinje fibers and also to the right papillary muscle via the moderator band
atrioventricular septum
cardiac septum located between the atria and ventricles; atrioventricular valves are located here
atrioventricular valves
one-way valves located between the atria and ventricles; the valve on the right is called the tricuspid valve, and the one on the left is the mitral or bicuspid valve
atrium
(plural = atria) upper or receiving chamber of the heart that pumps blood into the lower chambers just prior to their contraction; the right atrium receives blood from the systemic circuit that flows into the right ventricle; the left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary circuit that flows into the left ventricle
auricle
extension of an atrium visible on the superior surface of the heart
autonomic tone
contractile state during resting cardiac activity produced by mild sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation
autorhythmicity
ability of cardiac muscle to initiate its own electrical impulse that triggers the mechanical contraction that pumps blood at a fixed pace without nervous or endocrine control
Bachmann’s bundle
(also, interatrial band) group of specialized conducting cells that transmit the impulse directly from the SA node in the right atrium to the left atrium
Bainbridge reflex
(also, called atrial reflex) autonomic reflex that responds to stretch receptors in the atria that send impulses to the cardioaccelerator area to increase HR when venous flow into the atria increases
baroreceptor reflex
autonomic reflex in which the cardiac centers monitor signals from the baroreceptor stretch receptors and regulate heart function based on blood flow
bicuspid valve
(also, mitral valve or left atrioventricular valve) valve located between the left atrium and ventricle; consists of two flaps of tissue
bulbus cordis
portion of the primitive heart tube that will eventually develop into the right ventricle
bundle of His
(also, atrioventricular bundle) group of specialized myocardial conductile cells that transmit the impulse from the AV node through the interventricular septum; form the left and right atrioventricular bundle branches
cardiac cycle
period of time between the onset of atrial contraction (atrial systole) and ventricular relaxation (ventricular diastole)
cardiac notch
depression in the medial surface of the inferior lobe of the left lung where the apex of the heart is located
cardiac output (CO)
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle during one minute; equals HR multiplied by SV
cardiac plexus
paired complex network of nerve fibers near the base of the heart that receive sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulations to regulate HR
cardiac reflexes
series of autonomic reflexes that enable the cardiovascular centers to regulate heart function based upon sensory information from a variety of visceral sensors
cardiac reserve
difference between maximum and resting CO
cardiac skeleton
(also, skeleton of the heart) reinforced connective tissue located within the atrioventricular septum; includes four rings that surround the openings between the atria and ventricles, and the openings to the pulmonary trunk and aorta; the point of attachment for the heart valves
cardiogenic area
area near the head of the embryo where the heart begins to develop 18–19 days after fertilization
cardiogenic cords
two strands of tissue that form within the cardiogenic area
cardiomyocyte
muscle cell of the heart
chordae tendineae
string-like extensions of tough connective tissue that extend from the flaps of the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles
circumflex artery
branch of the left coronary artery that follows coronary sulcus
coronary arteries
branches of the ascending aorta that supply blood to the heart; the left coronary artery feeds the left side of the heart, the left atrium and ventricle, and the interventricular septum; the right coronary artery feeds the right atrium, portions of both ventricles, and the heart conduction system
coronary sinus
large, thin-walled vein on the posterior surface of the heart that lies within the atrioventricular sulcus and drains the heart myocardium directly into the right atrium
coronary sulcus
sulcus that marks the boundary between the atria and ventricles
coronary veins
vessels that drain the heart and generally parallel the large surface arteries
diastole
period of time when the heart muscle is relaxed and the chambers fill with blood
ejection fraction
portion of the blood that is pumped or ejected from the heart with each contraction; mathematically represented by SV divided by EDV
electrocardiogram (ECG)
surface recording of the electrical activity of the heart that can be used for diagnosis of irregular heart function; also abbreviated as EKG
end diastolic volume (EDV)
(also, preload) the amount of blood in the ventricles at the end of atrial systole just prior to ventricular contraction
end systolic volume (ESV)
amount of blood remaining in each ventricle following systole
endocardial tubes
stage in which lumens form within the expanding cardiogenic cords, forming hollow structures
endocardium
innermost layer of the heart lining the heart chambers and heart valves; composed of endothelium reinforced with a thin layer of connective tissue that binds to the myocardium
endothelium
layer of smooth, simple squamous epithelium that lines the endocardium and blood vessels
epicardial coronary arteries
surface arteries of the heart that generally follow the sulci
epicardium
innermost layer of the serous pericardium and the outermost layer of the heart wall
filling time
duration of ventricular diastole during which filling occurs
foramen ovale
opening in the fetal heart that allows blood to flow directly from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the fetal pulmonary circuit
fossa ovalis
oval-shaped depression in the interatrial septum that marks the former location of the foramen ovale
Frank-Starling mechanism
relationship between ventricular stretch and contraction in which the force of heart contraction is directly proportional to the initial length of the muscle fiber
great cardiac vein
vessel that follows the interventricular sulcus on the anterior surface of the heart and flows along the coronary sulcus into the coronary sinus on the posterior surface; parallels the anterior interventricular artery and drains the areas supplied by this vessel
heart block
interruption in the normal conduction pathway
heart bulge
prominent feature on the anterior surface of the heart, reflecting early cardiac development
heart rate (HR)
number of times the heart contracts (beats) per minute
heart sounds
sounds heard via auscultation with a stethoscope of the closing of the atrioventricular valves (“lub”) and semilunar valves (“dub”)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
pathological enlargement of the heart, generally for no known reason
inferior vena cava
large systemic vein that returns blood to the heart from the inferior portion of the body
interatrial band
(also, Bachmann’s bundle) group of specialized conducting cells that transmit the impulse directly from the SA node in the right atrium to the left atrium
interatrial septum
cardiac septum located between the two atria; contains the fossa ovalis after birth
intercalated disc
physical junction between adjacent cardiac muscle cells; consisting of desmosomes, specialized linking proteoglycans, and gap junctions that allow passage of ions between the two cells
internodal pathways
specialized conductile cells within the atria that transmit the impulse from the SA node throughout the myocardial cells of the atrium and to the AV node
interventricular septum
cardiac septum located between the two ventricles
isovolumic contraction
(also, isovolumetric contraction) initial phase of ventricular contraction in which tension and pressure in the ventricle increase, but no blood is pumped or ejected from the heart
isovolumic ventricular relaxation phase
initial phase of the ventricular diastole when pressure in the ventricles drops below pressure in the two major arteries, the pulmonary trunk, and the aorta, and blood attempts to flow back into the ventricles, producing the dicrotic notch of the ECG and closing the two semilunar valves
left atrioventricular valve
(also, mitral valve or bicuspid valve) valve located between the left atrium and ventricle; consists of two flaps of tissue
marginal arteries
branches of the right coronary artery that supply blood to the superficial portions of the right ventricle
mesoderm
one of the three primary germ layers that differentiate early in embryonic development
mesothelium
simple squamous epithelial portion of serous membranes, such as the superficial portion of the epicardium (the visceral pericardium) and the deepest portion of the pericardium (the parietal pericardium)
middle cardiac vein
vessel that parallels and drains the areas supplied by the posterior interventricular artery; drains into the great cardiac vein
mitral valve
(also, left atrioventricular valve or bicuspid valve) valve located between the left atrium and ventricle; consists of two flaps of tissue
moderator band
band of myocardium covered by endocardium that arises from the inferior portion of the interventricular septum in the right ventricle and crosses to the anterior papillary muscle; contains conductile fibers that carry electrical signals followed by contraction of the heart
murmur
unusual heart sound detected by auscultation; typically related to septal or valve defects
myocardial conducting cells
specialized cells that transmit electrical impulses throughout the heart and trigger contraction by the myocardial contractile cells
myocardial contractile cells
bulk of the cardiac muscle cells in the atria and ventricles that conduct impulses and contract to propel blood
myocardium
thickest layer of the heart composed of cardiac muscle cells built upon a framework of primarily collagenous fibers and blood vessels that supply it and the nervous fibers that help to regulate it
negative inotropic factors
factors that negatively impact or lower heart contractility
P wave
component of the electrocardiogram that represents the depolarization of the atria
pacemaker
cluster of specialized myocardial cells known as the SA node that initiates the sinus rhythm
papillary muscle
extension of the myocardium in the ventricles to which the chordae tendineae attach
pectinate muscles
muscular ridges seen on the anterior surface of the right atrium
pericardial cavity
cavity surrounding the heart filled with a lubricating serous fluid that reduces friction as the heart contracts
pericardial sac
(also, pericardium) membrane that separates the heart from other mediastinal structures; consists of two distinct, fused sublayers: the fibrous pericardium and the parietal pericardium
pericardium
(also, pericardial sac) membrane that separates the heart from other mediastinal structures; consists of two distinct, fused sublayers: the fibrous pericardium and the parietal pericardium
positive inotropic factors
factors that positively impact or increase heart contractility
posterior cardiac vein
vessel that parallels and drains the areas supplied by the marginal artery branch of the circumflex artery; drains into the great cardiac vein
posterior interventricular artery
(also, posterior descending artery) branch of the right coronary artery that runs along the posterior portion of the interventricular sulcus toward the apex of the heart and gives rise to branches that supply the interventricular septum and portions of both ventricles
posterior interventricular sulcus
sulcus located between the left and right ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart
preload
(also, end diastolic volume) amount of blood in the ventricles at the end of atrial systole just prior to ventricular contraction
prepotential depolarization
(also, spontaneous depolarization) mechanism that accounts for the autorhythmic property of cardiac muscle; the membrane potential increases as sodium ions diffuse through the always-open sodium ion channels and causes the electrical potential to rise
primitive atrium
portion of the primitive heart tube that eventually becomes the anterior portions of both the right and left atria, and the two auricles
primitive heart tube
singular tubular structure that forms from the fusion of the two endocardial tubes
primitive ventricle
portion of the primitive heart tube that eventually forms the left ventricle
pulmonary arteries
left and right branches of the pulmonary trunk that carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to each of the lungs
pulmonary capillaries
capillaries surrounding the alveoli of the lungs where gas exchange occurs: carbon dioxide exits the blood and oxygen enters
pulmonary circuit
blood flow to and from the lungs
pulmonary trunk
large arterial vessel that carries blood ejected from the right ventricle; divides into the left and right pulmonary arteries
pulmonary valve
(also, pulmonary semilunar valve, the pulmonic valve, or the right semilunar valve) valve at the base of the pulmonary trunk that prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle; consists of three flaps
pulmonary veins
veins that carry highly oxygenated blood into the left atrium, which pumps the blood into the left ventricle, which in turn pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta and to the many branches of the systemic circuit
Purkinje fibers
specialized myocardial conduction fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread the impulse to the myocardial contraction fibers of the ventricles
QRS complex
component of the electrocardiogram that represents the depolarization of the ventricles and includes, as a component, the repolarization of the atria
right atrioventricular valve
(also, tricuspid valve) valve located between the right atrium and ventricle; consists of three flaps of tissue
semilunar valves
valves located at the base of the pulmonary trunk and at the base of the aorta
septum
(plural = septa) walls or partitions that divide the heart into chambers
septum primum
flap of tissue in the fetus that covers the foramen ovale within a few seconds after birth
sinoatrial (SA) node
known as the pacemaker, a specialized clump of myocardial conducting cells located in the superior portion of the right atrium that has the highest inherent rate of depolarization that then spreads throughout the heart
sinus rhythm
normal contractile pattern of the heart
sinus venosus
develops into the posterior portion of the right atrium, the SA node, and the coronary sinus
small cardiac vein
parallels the right coronary artery and drains blood from the posterior surfaces of the right atrium and ventricle; drains into the great cardiac vein
spontaneous depolarization
(also, prepotential depolarization) the mechanism that accounts for the autorhythmic property of cardiac muscle; the membrane potential increases as sodium ions diffuse through the always-open sodium ion channels and causes the electrical potential to rise
stroke volume (SV)
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle per contraction; also, the difference between EDV and ESV
sulcus
(plural = sulci) fat-filled groove visible on the surface of the heart; coronary vessels are also located in these areas
superior vena cava
large systemic vein that returns blood to the heart from the superior portion of the body
systemic circuit
blood flow to and from virtually all of the tissues of the body
systole
period of time when the heart muscle is contracting
T wave
component of the electrocardiogram that represents the repolarization of the ventricles
target heart rate
range in which both the heart and lungs receive the maximum benefit from an aerobic workout
trabeculae carneae
ridges of muscle covered by endocardium located in the ventricles
tricuspid valve
term used most often in clinical settings for the right atrioventricular valve
truncus arteriosus
portion of the primitive heart that will eventually divide and give rise to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
valve
in the cardiovascular system, a specialized structure located within the heart or vessels that ensures one-way flow of blood
ventricle
one of the primary pumping chambers of the heart located in the lower portion of the heart; the left ventricle is the major pumping chamber on the lower left side of the heart that ejects blood into the systemic circuit via the aorta and receives blood from the left atrium; the right ventricle is the major pumping chamber on the lower right side of the heart that ejects blood into the pulmonary circuit via the pulmonary trunk and receives blood from the right atrium
ventricular ejection phase
second phase of ventricular systole during which blood is pumped from the ventricle
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