Which of the following statements about blood is true?
- Blood is about 92 percent water.
- Blood is slightly more acidic than water.
- Blood is slightly more viscous than water.
- Blood is slightly more salty than seawater.
Which of the following statements about albumin is true?
- It draws water out of the blood vessels and into the body’s tissues.
- It is the most abundant plasma protein.
- It is produced by specialized leukocytes called plasma cells.
- All of the above are true.
Which of the following plasma proteins is not produced by the liver?
- alpha globulin
- beta globulin
Which of the formed elements arise from myeloid stem cells?
- B cells
- natural killer cells
- all of the above
Which of the following statements about erythropoietin is true?
- It facilitates the proliferation and differentiation of the erythrocyte lineage.
- It is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland.
- It is a hemopoietic growth factor that prompts lymphoid stem cells to leave the bone marrow.
- Both a and b are true.
Interleukins are associated primarily with which of the following?
- production of various lymphocytes
- immune responses
- all of the above
Which of the following statements about mature, circulating erythrocytes is true?
- They have no nucleus.
- They are packed with mitochondria.
- They survive for an average of 4 days.
- All of the above
A molecule of hemoglobin ________.
- is shaped like a biconcave disk packed almost entirely with iron
- contains four glycoprotein units studded with oxygen
- consists of four globin proteins, each bound to a molecule of heme
- can carry up to 120 molecules of oxygen
The production of healthy erythrocytes depends upon the availability of ________.
- vitamin B12
- copper, zinc, and vitamin B12
Aging and damaged erythrocytes are removed from the circulation by ________.
- mast cells
A patient has been suffering for 2 months with a chronic, watery diarrhea. A blood test is likely to reveal ________.
- a hematocrit below 30 percent
The process by which leukocytes squeeze through adjacent cells in a blood vessel wall is called ________.
- positive chemotaxis
- cytoplasmic extending
Which of the following describes a neutrophil?
- abundant, agranular, especially effective against cancer cells
- abundant, granular, especially effective against bacteria
- rare, agranular, releases antimicrobial defensins
- rare, granular, contains multiple granules packed with histamine
T and B lymphocytes ________.
- are polymorphonuclear
- are involved with specific immune function
- proliferate excessively in leukopenia
- are most active against parasitic worms
A patient has been experiencing severe, persistent allergy symptoms that are reduced when she takes an antihistamine. Before the treatment, this patient was likely to have had increased activity of which leukocyte?
- natural killer cells
Thrombocytes are more accurately called ________.
- clotting factors
The first step in hemostasis is ________.
- vascular spasm
- conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
- activation of the intrinsic pathway
- activation of the common pathway
Prothrombin is converted to thrombin during the ________.
- intrinsic pathway
- extrinsic pathway
- common pathway
- formation of the platelet plug
Hemophilia is characterized by ________.
- inadequate production of heparin
- inadequate production of clotting factors
- excessive production of fibrinogen
- excessive production of platelets
The process in which antibodies attach to antigens, causing the formation of masses of linked cells, is called ________.
People with ABO blood type O ________.
- have both antigens A and B on their erythrocytes
- lack both antigens A and B on their erythrocytes
- have neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies circulating in their blood plasma
- are considered universal recipients
Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a risk during a subsequent pregnancy in which ________.
- a type AB mother is carrying a type O fetus
- a type O mother is carrying a type AB fetus
- an Rh+ mother is carrying an Rh− fetus
- an Rh− mother is carrying a second Rh+ fetus