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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
acetylcholine (ACh)
neurotransmitter that binds at a motor end-plate to trigger depolarization
adrenal medulla
interior portion of the adrenal (or suprarenal) gland that releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream as hormones
adrenergic
synapse where norepinephrine is released, which binds to α- or β-adrenergic receptors
afferent branch
component of a reflex arc that represents the input from a sensory neuron, for either a special or general sense
agonist
any exogenous substance that binds to a receptor and produces a similar effect to the endogenous ligand
alpha (α)-adrenergic receptor
one of the receptors to which epinephrine and norepinephrine bind, which comes in three subtypes: α1, α2, and α3
antagonist
any exogenous substance that binds to a receptor and produces an opposing effect to the endogenous ligand
anticholinergic drugs
drugs that interrupt or reduce the function of the parasympathetic system
autonomic tone
tendency of an organ system to be governed by one division of the autonomic nervous system over the other, such as heart rate being lowered by parasympathetic input at rest
baroreceptor
mechanoreceptor that senses the stretch of blood vessels to indicate changes in blood pressure
beta (β)-adrenergic receptor
one of the receptors to which epinephrine and norepinephrine bind, which comes in two subtypes: β1 and β2
cardiac accelerator nerves
preganglionic sympathetic fibers that cause the heart rate to increase when the cardiovascular center in the medulla initiates a signal
cardiovascular center
region in the medulla that controls the cardiovascular system through cardiac accelerator nerves and vasomotor nerves, which are components of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
celiac ganglion
one of the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic system that projects to the digestive system
central neuron
specifically referring to the cell body of a neuron in the autonomic system that is located in the central nervous system, specifically the lateral horn of the spinal cord or a brain stem nucleus
cholinergic
synapse at which acetylcholine is released and binds to the nicotinic or muscarinic receptor
chromaffin cells
neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla that release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream as part of sympathetic system activity
ciliary ganglion
one of the terminal ganglia of the parasympathetic system, located in the posterior orbit, axons from which project to the iris
collateral ganglia
ganglia outside of the sympathetic chain that are targets of sympathetic preganglionic fibers, which are the celiac, inferior mesenteric, and superior mesenteric ganglia
craniosacral system
alternate name for the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system that is based on the anatomical location of central neurons in brain-stem nuclei and the lateral horn of the sacral spinal cord; also referred to as craniosacral outflow
dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
major output pathway of the hypothalamus that descends through the gray matter of the brain stem and into the spinal cord
dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve
location of parasympathetic neurons that project through the vagus nerve to terminal ganglia in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Eddinger–Westphal nucleus
location of parasympathetic neurons that project to the ciliary ganglion
efferent branch
component of a reflex arc that represents the output, with the target being an effector, such as muscle or glandular tissue
endogenous
describes substance made in the human body
endogenous chemical
substance produced and released within the body to interact with a receptor protein
epinephrine
signaling molecule released from the adrenal medulla into the bloodstream as part of the sympathetic response
exogenous
describes substance made outside of the human body
exogenous chemical
substance from a source outside the body, whether it be another organism such as a plant or from the synthetic processes of a laboratory, that binds to a transmembrane receptor protein
fight-or-flight response
set of responses induced by sympathetic activity that lead to either fleeing a threat or standing up to it, which in the modern world is often associated with anxious feelings
G protein–coupled receptor
membrane protein complex that consists of a receptor protein that binds to a signaling molecule—a G protein—that is activated by that binding and in turn activates an effector protein (enzyme) that creates a second-messenger molecule in the cytoplasm of the target cell
ganglionic neuron
specifically refers to the cell body of a neuron in the autonomic system that is located in a ganglion
gray rami communicantes
(singular = ramus communicans) unmyelinated structures that provide a short connection from a sympathetic chain ganglion to the spinal nerve that contains the postganglionic sympathetic fiber
greater splanchnic nerve
nerve that contains fibers of the central sympathetic neurons that do not synapse in the chain ganglia but project onto the celiac ganglion
inferior mesenteric ganglion
one of the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic system that projects to the digestive system
intramural ganglia
terminal ganglia of the parasympathetic system that are found within the walls of the target effector
lesser splanchnic nerve
nerve that contains fibers of the central sympathetic neurons that do not synapse in the chain ganglia but project onto the inferior mesenteric ganglion
ligand-gated cation channel
ion channel, such as the nicotinic receptor, that is specific to positively charged ions and opens when a molecule such as a neurotransmitter binds to it
limbic lobe
structures arranged around the edges of the cerebrum that are involved in memory and emotion
long reflex
reflex arc that includes the central nervous system
medial forebrain bundle
fiber pathway that extends anteriorly into the basal forebrain, passes through the hypothalamus, and extends into the brain stem and spinal cord
mesenteric plexus
nervous tissue within the wall of the digestive tract that contains neurons that are the targets of autonomic preganglionic fibers and that project to the smooth muscle and glandular tissues in the digestive organ
muscarinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to muscarine and is a metabotropic receptor
mydriasis
dilation of the pupil; typically the result of disease, trauma, or drugs
nicotinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to nicotine and is an ionotropic receptor
norepinephrine
signaling molecule released as a neurotransmitter by most postganglionic sympathetic fibers as part of the sympathetic response, or as a hormone into the bloodstream from the adrenal medulla
nucleus ambiguus
brain-stem nucleus that contains neurons that project through the vagus nerve to terminal ganglia in the thoracic cavity; specifically associated with the heart
parasympathetic division
division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for restful and digestive functions
parasympathomimetic drugs
drugs that enhance or mimic the function of the parasympathetic system
paravertebral ganglia
autonomic ganglia superior to the sympathetic chain ganglia
postganglionic fiber
axon from a ganglionic neuron in the autonomic nervous system that projects to and synapses with the target effector; sometimes referred to as a postganglionic neuron
preganglionic fiber
axon from a central neuron in the autonomic nervous system that projects to and synapses with a ganglionic neuron; sometimes referred to as a preganglionic neuron
prevertebral ganglia
autonomic ganglia that are anterior to the vertebral column and functionally related to the sympathetic chain ganglia
referred pain
the conscious perception of visceral sensation projected to a different region of the body, such as the left shoulder and arm pain as a sign for a heart attack
reflex arc
circuit of a reflex that involves a sensory input and motor output, or an afferent branch and an efferent branch, and an integrating center to connect the two branches
rest and digest
set of functions associated with the parasympathetic system that lead to restful actions and digestion
short reflex
reflex arc that does not include any components of the central nervous system
somatic reflex
reflex involving skeletal muscle as the effector, under the control of the somatic nervous system
superior cervical ganglion
one of the paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic system that projects to the head
superior mesenteric ganglion
one of the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic system that projects to the digestive system
sympathetic chain ganglia
series of ganglia adjacent to the vertebral column that receive input from central sympathetic neurons
sympathetic division
division of the autonomic nervous system associated with the fight-or-flight response
sympatholytic drug
drug that interrupts, or “lyses,” the function of the sympathetic system
sympathomimetic drug
drug that enhances or mimics the function of the sympathetic system
target effector
organ, tissue, or gland that will respond to the control of an autonomic or somatic or endocrine signal
terminal ganglia
ganglia of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic system, which are located near or within the target effector, the latter also known as intramural ganglia
thoracolumbar system
alternate name for the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system that is based on the anatomical location of central neurons in the lateral horn of the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord
varicosity
structure of some autonomic connections that is not a typical synaptic end bulb, but a string of swellings along the length of a fiber that makes a network of connections with the target effector
vasomotor nerves
preganglionic sympathetic fibers that cause the constriction of blood vessels in response to signals from the cardiovascular center
visceral reflex
reflex involving an internal organ as the effector, under the control of the autonomic nervous system
white rami communicantes
(singular = ramus communicans) myelinated structures that provide a short connection from a sympathetic chain ganglion to the spinal nerve that contains the preganglionic sympathetic fiber
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