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Anatomy and Physiology

Review Questions

Anatomy and PhysiologyReview Questions


Which of the following cavities contains a component of the central nervous system?

  1. abdominal
  2. pelvic
  3. cranial
  4. thoracic

Which structure predominates in the white matter of the brain?

  1. myelinated axons
  2. neuronal cell bodies
  3. ganglia of the parasympathetic nerves
  4. bundles of dendrites from the enteric nervous system

Which part of a neuron transmits an electrical signal to a target cell?

  1. dendrites
  2. soma
  3. cell body
  4. axon

Which term describes a bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system?

  1. nucleus
  2. ganglion
  3. tract
  4. nerve

Which functional division of the nervous system would be responsible for the physiological changes seen during exercise (e.g., increased heart rate and sweating)?

  1. somatic
  2. autonomic
  3. enteric
  4. central

What type of glial cell provides myelin for the axons in a tract?

  1. oligodendrocyte
  2. astrocyte
  3. Schwann cell
  4. satellite cell

Which part of a neuron contains the nucleus?

  1. dendrite
  2. soma
  3. axon
  4. synaptic end bulb

Which of the following substances is least able to cross the blood-brain barrier?

  1. water
  2. sodium ions
  3. glucose
  4. white blood cells

What type of glial cell is the resident macrophage behind the blood-brain barrier?

  1. microglia
  2. astrocyte
  3. Schwann cell
  4. satellite cell

What two types of macromolecules are the main components of myelin?

  1. carbohydrates and lipids
  2. proteins and nucleic acids
  3. lipids and proteins
  4. carbohydrates and nucleic acids

If a thermoreceptor is sensitive to temperature sensations, what would a chemoreceptor be sensitive to?

  1. light
  2. sound
  3. molecules
  4. vibration

Which of these locations is where the greatest level of integration is taking place in the example of testing the temperature of the shower?

  1. skeletal muscle
  2. spinal cord
  3. thalamus
  4. cerebral cortex

How long does all the signaling through the sensory pathway, within the central nervous system, and through the motor command pathway take?

  1. 1 to 2 minutes
  2. 1 to 2 seconds
  3. fraction of a second
  4. varies with graded potential

What is the target of an upper motor neuron?

  1. cerebral cortex
  2. lower motor neuron
  3. skeletal muscle
  4. thalamus

What ion enters a neuron causing depolarization of the cell membrane?

  1. sodium
  2. chloride
  3. potassium
  4. phosphate

Voltage-gated Na+ channels open upon reaching what state?

  1. resting potential
  2. threshold
  3. repolarization
  4. overshoot

What does a ligand-gated channel require in order to open?

  1. increase in concentration of Na+ ions
  2. binding of a neurotransmitter
  3. increase in concentration of K+ ions
  4. depolarization of the membrane

What does a mechanically gated channel respond to?

  1. physical stimulus
  2. chemical stimulus
  3. increase in resistance
  4. decrease in resistance

Which of the following voltages would most likely be measured during the relative refractory period?

  1. +30 mV
  2. 0 mV
  3. -45 mV
  4. -80 mv

Which of the following is probably going to propagate an action potential fastest?

  1. a thin, unmyelinated axon
  2. a thin, myelinated axon
  3. a thick, unmyelinated axon
  4. a thick, myelinated axon

How much of a change in the membrane potential is necessary for the summation of postsynaptic potentials to result in an action potential being generated?

  1. +30 mV
  2. +15 mV
  3. +10 mV
  4. -15 mV

A channel opens on a postsynaptic membrane that causes a negative ion to enter the cell. What type of graded potential is this?

  1. depolarizing
  2. repolarizing
  3. hyperpolarizing
  4. non-polarizing

What neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular junction?

  1. norepinephrine
  2. serotonin
  3. dopamine
  4. acetylcholine

What type of receptor requires an effector protein to initiate a signal?

  1. biogenic amine
  2. ionotropic receptor
  3. cholinergic system
  4. metabotropic receptor

Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with inhibition exclusively?

  1. GABA
  2. acetylcholine
  3. glutamate
  4. norepinephrine
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