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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
absolute refractory period
time during an action period when another action potential cannot be generated because the voltage-gated Na+ channel is inactivated
action potential
change in voltage of a cell membrane in response to a stimulus that results in transmission of an electrical signal; unique to neurons and muscle fibers
activation gate
part of the voltage-gated Na+ channel that opens when the membrane voltage reaches threshold
astrocyte
glial cell type of the CNS that provides support for neurons and maintains the blood-brain barrier
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
functional division of the nervous system that is responsible for homeostatic reflexes that coordinate control of cardiac and smooth muscle, as well as glandular tissue
axon
single process of the neuron that carries an electrical signal (action potential) away from the cell body toward a target cell
axon hillock
tapering of the neuron cell body that gives rise to the axon
axon segment
single stretch of the axon insulated by myelin and bounded by nodes of Ranvier at either end (except for the first, which is after the initial segment, and the last, which is followed by the axon terminal)
axon terminal
end of the axon, where there are usually several branches extending toward the target cell
axoplasm
cytoplasm of an axon, which is different in composition than the cytoplasm of the neuronal cell body
biogenic amine
class of neurotransmitters that are enzymatically derived from amino acids but no longer contain a carboxyl group
bipolar
shape of a neuron with two processes extending from the neuron cell body—the axon and one dendrite
blood-brain barrier (BBB)
physiological barrier between the circulatory system and the central nervous system that establishes a privileged blood supply, restricting the flow of substances into the CNS
brain
the large organ of the central nervous system composed of white and gray matter, contained within the cranium and continuous with the spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS)
anatomical division of the nervous system located within the cranial and vertebral cavities, namely the brain and spinal cord
cerebral cortex
outermost layer of gray matter in the brain, where conscious perception takes place
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
circulatory medium within the CNS that is produced by ependymal cells in the choroid plexus filtering the blood
chemical synapse
connection between two neurons, or between a neuron and its target, where a neurotransmitter diffuses across a very short distance
cholinergic system
neurotransmitter system of acetylcholine, which includes its receptors and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
choroid plexus
specialized structure containing ependymal cells that line blood capillaries and filter blood to produce CSF in the four ventricles of the brain
continuous conduction
slow propagation of an action potential along an unmyelinated axon owing to voltage-gated Na+ channels located along the entire length of the cell membrane
dendrite
one of many branchlike processes that extends from the neuron cell body and functions as a contact for incoming signals (synapses) from other neurons or sensory cells
depolarization
change in a cell membrane potential from rest toward zero
effector protein
enzyme that catalyzes the generation of a new molecule, which acts as the intracellular mediator of the signal that binds to the receptor
electrical synapse
connection between two neurons, or any two electrically active cells, where ions flow directly through channels spanning their adjacent cell membranes
electrochemical exclusion
principle of selectively allowing ions through a channel on the basis of their charge
enteric nervous system (ENS)
neural tissue associated with the digestive system that is responsible for nervous control through autonomic connections
ependymal cell
glial cell type in the CNS responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid
excitable membrane
cell membrane that regulates the movement of ions so that an electrical signal can be generated
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane that is the result of depolarization and makes an action potential more likely to occur
G protein
guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolase that physically moves from the receptor protein to the effector protein to activate the latter
ganglion
localized collection of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
gated
property of a channel that determines how it opens under specific conditions, such as voltage change or physical deformation
generator potential
graded potential from dendrites of a unipolar cell which generates the action potential in the initial segment of that cell’s axon
glial cell
one of the various types of neural tissue cells responsible for maintenance of the tissue, and largely responsible for supporting neurons
graded potential
change in the membrane potential that varies in size, depending on the size of the stimulus that elicits it
gray matter
regions of the nervous system containing cell bodies of neurons with few or no myelinated axons; actually may be more pink or tan in color, but called gray in contrast to white matter
inactivation gate
part of a voltage-gated Na+ channel that closes when the membrane potential reaches +30 mV
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane that is the result of hyperpolarization and makes an action potential less likely to occur
initial segment
first part of the axon as it emerges from the axon hillock, where the electrical signals known as action potentials are generated
integration
nervous system function that combines sensory perceptions and higher cognitive functions (memories, learning, emotion, etc.) to produce a response
ionotropic receptor
neurotransmitter receptor that acts as an ion channel gate, and opens by the binding of the neurotransmitter
leakage channel
ion channel that opens randomly and is not gated to a specific event, also known as a non-gated channel
ligand-gated channels
another name for an ionotropic receptor for which a neurotransmitter is the ligand
lower motor neuron
second neuron in the motor command pathway that is directly connected to the skeletal muscle
mechanically gated channel
ion channel that opens when a physical event directly affects the structure of the protein
membrane potential
distribution of charge across the cell membrane, based on the charges of ions
metabotropic receptor
neurotransmitter receptor that involves a complex of proteins that cause metabolic changes in a cell
microglia
glial cell type in the CNS that serves as the resident component of the immune system
multipolar
shape of a neuron that has multiple processes—the axon and two or more dendrites
muscarinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to muscarine and is a metabotropic receptor
myelin
lipid-rich insulating substance surrounding the axons of many neurons, allowing for faster transmission of electrical signals
myelin sheath
lipid-rich layer of insulation that surrounds an axon, formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS; facilitates the transmission of electrical signals
nerve
cord-like bundle of axons located in the peripheral nervous system that transmits sensory input and response output to and from the central nervous system
neuron
neural tissue cell that is primarily responsible for generating and propagating electrical signals into, within, and out of the nervous system
neuropeptide
neurotransmitter type that includes protein molecules and shorter chains of amino acids
neurotransmitter
chemical signal that is released from the synaptic end bulb of a neuron to cause a change in the target cell
nicotinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to nicotine and is an ionotropic receptor
node of Ranvier
gap between two myelinated regions of an axon, allowing for strengthening of the electrical signal as it propagates down the axon
nonspecific channel
channel that is not specific to one ion over another, such as a nonspecific cation channel that allows any positively charged ion across the membrane
nucleus
in the nervous system, a localized collection of neuron cell bodies that are functionally related; a “center” of neural function
oligodendrocyte
glial cell type in the CNS that provides the myelin insulation for axons in tracts
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
anatomical division of the nervous system that is largely outside the cranial and vertebral cavities, namely all parts except the brain and spinal cord
postsynaptic potential (PSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane caused by the binding of neurotransmitter to protein receptors
precentral gyrus of the frontal cortex
region of the cerebral cortex responsible for generating motor commands, where the upper motor neuron cell body is located
process
in cells, an extension of a cell body; in the case of neurons, this includes the axon and dendrites
propagation
movement of an action potential along the length of an axon
receptor potential
graded potential in a specialized sensory cell that directly causes the release of neurotransmitter without an intervening action potential
refractory period
time after the initiation of an action potential when another action potential cannot be generated
relative refractory period
time during the refractory period when a new action potential can only be initiated by a stronger stimulus than the current action potential because voltage-gated K+ channels are not closed
repolarization
return of the membrane potential to its normally negative voltage at the end of the action potential
resistance
property of an axon that relates to the ability of particles to diffuse through the cytoplasm; this is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter
response
nervous system function that causes a target tissue (muscle or gland) to produce an event as a consequence to stimuli
resting membrane potential
the difference in voltage measured across a cell membrane under steady-state conditions, typically -70 mV
saltatory conduction
quick propagation of the action potential along a myelinated axon owing to voltage-gated Na+ channels being present only at the nodes of Ranvier
satellite cell
glial cell type in the PNS that provides support for neurons in the ganglia
Schwann cell
glial cell type in the PNS that provides the myelin insulation for axons in nerves
sensation
nervous system function that receives information from the environment and translates it into the electrical signals of nervous tissue
size exclusion
principle of selectively allowing ions through a channel on the basis of their relative size
soma
in neurons, that portion of the cell that contains the nucleus; the cell body, as opposed to the cell processes (axons and dendrites)
somatic nervous system (SNS)
functional division of the nervous system that is concerned with conscious perception, voluntary movement, and skeletal muscle reflexes
spatial summation
combination of graded potentials across the neuronal cell membrane caused by signals from separate presynaptic elements that add up to initiate an action potential
spinal cord
organ of the central nervous system found within the vertebral cavity and connected with the periphery through spinal nerves; mediates reflex behaviors
stimulus
an event in the external or internal environment that registers as activity in a sensory neuron
summate
to add together, as in the cumulative change in postsynaptic potentials toward reaching threshold in the membrane, either across a span of the membrane or over a certain amount of time
synapse
narrow junction across which a chemical signal passes from neuron to the next, initiating a new electrical signal in the target cell
synaptic cleft
small gap between cells in a chemical synapse where neurotransmitter diffuses from the presynaptic element to the postsynaptic element
synaptic end bulb
swelling at the end of an axon where neurotransmitter molecules are released onto a target cell across a synapse
temporal summation
combination of graded potentials at the same location on a neuron resulting in a strong signal from one input
thalamus
region of the central nervous system that acts as a relay for sensory pathways
thermoreceptor
type of sensory receptor capable of transducing temperature stimuli into neural action potentials
threshold
membrane voltage at which an action potential is initiated
tract
bundle of axons in the central nervous system having the same function and point of origin
unipolar
shape of a neuron which has only one process that includes both the axon and dendrite
upper motor neuron
first neuron in the motor command pathway with its cell body in the cerebral cortex that synapses on the lower motor neuron in the spinal cord
ventricle
central cavity within the brain where CSF is produced and circulates
voltage-gated channel
ion channel that opens because of a change in the charge distributed across the membrane where it is located
white matter
regions of the nervous system containing mostly myelinated axons, making the tissue appear white because of the high lipid content of myelin
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