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A monosaccharide is formed from a polysaccharide in what kind of reaction?

  1. oxidation–reduction reaction
  2. anabolic reaction
  3. catabolic reaction
  4. biosynthetic reaction

If anabolic reactions exceed catabolic reactions, the result will be ________.

  1. weight loss
  2. weight gain
  3. metabolic rate change
  4. development of disease

When NAD becomes NADH, the coenzyme has been ________.

  1. reduced
  2. oxidized
  3. metabolized
  4. hydrolyzed

Anabolic reactions use energy by ________.

  1. turning ADP into ATP
  2. removing a phosphate group from ATP
  3. producing heat
  4. breaking down molecules into smaller parts

Glycolysis results in the production of two ________ molecules from a single molecule of glucose. In the absence of ________, the end product of glycolysis is ________.

  1. acetyl CoA, pyruvate, lactate
  2. ATP, carbon, pyruvate
  3. pyruvate, oxygen, lactate
  4. pyruvate, carbon, acetyl CoA

The Krebs cycle converts ________ through a cycle of reactions. In the process, ATP, ________, and ________ are produced.

  1. acetyl CoA; FAD, NAD
  2. acetyl CoA; FADH2; NADH
  3. pyruvate; NAD; FADH2
  4. pyruvate; oxygen; oxaloacetate

Which pathway produces the most ATP molecules?

  1. lactic acid fermentation
  2. the Krebs cycle
  3. the electron transport chain
  4. glycolysis

Aerobic cellular respiration results in the production of these two products.

  1. NADH and FADH2
  2. ATP and pyruvate
  3. ATP and glucose
  4. ATP and H2O

When NAD+ becomes NADH, the coenzyme has been ________.

  1. reduced
  2. oxidized
  3. metabolized
  4. hydrolyzed

Lipids in the diet can be ________.

  1. broken down into energy for the body
  2. stored as triglycerides for later use
  3. converted into acetyl CoA
  4. all of the above

The gallbladder provides ________ that aid(s) in transport of lipids across the intestinal membrane.

  1. lipases
  2. cholesterol
  3. proteins
  4. bile salts

Triglycerides are transported by chylomicrons because ________.

  1. they cannot move easily in the blood stream because they are fat based, while the blood is water based
  2. they are too small to move by themselves
  3. the chylomicrons contain enzymes they need for anabolism
  4. they cannot fit across the intestinal membrane

Which molecule produces the most ATP?

  1. carbohydrates
  2. FADH2
  3. triglycerides
  4. NADH

Which molecules can enter the Krebs cycle?

  1. chylomicrons
  2. acetyl CoA
  3. monoglycerides
  4. ketone bodies

Acetyl CoA can be converted to all of the following except ________.

  1. ketone bodies
  2. fatty acids
  3. polysaccharides
  4. triglycerides

Digestion of proteins begins in the ________ where ________ and ________ mix with food to break down protein into ________.

  1. stomach; amylase; HCl; amino acids
  2. mouth; pepsin; HCl; fatty acids
  3. stomach; lipase; HCl; amino acids
  4. stomach; pepsin; HCl; amino acids

Amino acids are needed to ________.

  1. build new proteins
  2. serve as fat stores
  3. supply energy for the cell
  4. create red blood cells

If an amino acid is not used to create new proteins, it can be ________.

  1. converted to acetyl CoA
  2. converted to glucose or ketones
  3. converted to nitrogen
  4. stored to be used later

During the absorptive state, glucose levels are ________, insulin levels are ________, and glucagon levels ________.

  1. high; low; stay the same
  2. low; low; stay the same
  3. high; high; are high
  4. high; high; are low

Starvation sets in after 3 to 4 days without food. Which hormones change in response to low glucose levels?

  1. glucagon and insulin
  2. ketones and glucagon
  3. insulin, glucose, and glucagon
  4. insulin and ketones

The postabsorptive state relies on stores of ________ in the ________.

  1. insulin; pancreas
  2. glucagon; pancreas
  3. glycogen; liver
  4. glucose; liver

The body’s temperature is controlled by the ________. This temperature is always kept between ________.

  1. pituitary; 36.5–37.5 °C
  2. hypothalamus; 97.7–99.5 °F
  3. hypothalamus; 36.5–37.5 °F
  4. pituitary; 97.7–99.5 °F

Fever increases the body temperature and can induce chills to help cool the temperature back down. What other mechanisms are in place to regulate the body temperature?

  1. shivering
  2. sweating
  3. erection of the hairs on the arms and legs
  4. all of the above

The heat you feel on your chair when you stand up was transferred from your skin via ________.

  1. conduction
  2. convection
  3. radiation
  4. evaporation

A crowded room warms up through the mechanism of ________.

  1. conduction
  2. convection
  3. radiation
  4. evaporation

A deficiency in vitamin A can result in ________.

  1. improper bone development
  2. scurvy
  3. improper eye development or sight
  4. all of the above

Rickets results in improper bone development in children that arises from the malabsorption of calcium and a deficiency in ________.

  1. vitamin D
  2. vitamin C
  3. vitamin B12
  4. niacin

Consuming which type of food will help the most with weight loss?

  1. fats
  2. vegetables
  3. lean meats
  4. fruits

Which of the following is stored in the body?

  1. thiamine
  2. phosphorous
  3. folic acid
  4. vitamin C
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