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Which of the following anatomical structures is not part of the conducting zone?

  1. pharynx
  2. nasal cavity
  3. alveoli
  4. bronchi

What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

  1. increase surface area
  2. exchange gases
  3. maintain surface tension
  4. maintain air pressure

The fauces connects which of the following structures to the oropharynx?

  1. nasopharynx
  2. laryngopharynx
  3. nasal cavity
  4. oral cavity

Which of the following are structural features of the trachea?

  1. C-shaped cartilage
  2. smooth muscle fibers
  3. cilia
  4. all of the above

Which of the following structures is not part of the bronchial tree?

  1. alveoli
  2. bronchi
  3. terminal bronchioles
  4. respiratory bronchioles

What is the role of alveolar macrophages?

  1. to secrete pulmonary surfactant
  2. to secrete antimicrobial proteins
  3. to remove pathogens and debris
  4. to facilitate gas exchange

Which of the following structures separates the lung into lobes?

  1. mediastinum
  2. fissure
  3. root
  4. pleura

A section of the lung that receives its own tertiary bronchus is called the ________.

  1. bronchopulmonary segment
  2. pulmonary lobule
  3. interpulmonary segment
  4. respiratory segment

The ________ circulation picks up oxygen for cellular use and drops off carbon dioxide for removal from the body.

  1. pulmonary
  2. interlobular
  3. respiratory
  4. bronchial

The pleura that surrounds the lungs consists of two layers, the ________.

  1. visceral and parietal pleurae.
  2. mediastinum and parietal pleurae.
  3. visceral and mediastinum pleurae.
  4. none of the above

Which of the following processes does atmospheric pressure play a role in?

  1. pulmonary ventilation
  2. production of pulmonary surfactant
  3. resistance
  4. surface tension

A decrease in volume leads to a(n) ________ pressure.

  1. decrease in
  2. equalization of
  3. increase in
  4. zero

The pressure difference between the intra-alveolar and intrapleural pressures is called ________.

  1. atmospheric pressure
  2. pulmonary pressure
  3. negative pressure
  4. transpulmonary pressure

Gas flow decreases as ________ increases.

  1. resistance
  2. pressure
  3. airway diameter
  4. friction

Contraction of the external intercostal muscles causes which of the following to occur?

  1. The diaphragm moves downward.
  2. The rib cage is compressed.
  3. The thoracic cavity volume decreases.
  4. The ribs and sternum move upward.

Which of the following prevents the alveoli from collapsing?

  1. residual volume
  2. tidal volume
  3. expiratory reserve volume
  4. inspiratory reserve volume

Gas moves from an area of ________ partial pressure to an area of ________ partial pressure.

  1. low; high
  2. low; low
  3. high; high
  4. high; low

When ventilation is not sufficient, which of the following occurs?

  1. The capillary constricts.
  2. The capillary dilates.
  3. The partial pressure of oxygen in the affected alveolus increases.
  4. The bronchioles dilate.

Gas exchange that occurs at the level of the tissues is called ________.

  1. external respiration
  2. interpulmonary respiration
  3. internal respiration
  4. pulmonary ventilation

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 45 mm Hg in the blood and 40 mm Hg in the alveoli. What happens to the carbon dioxide?

  1. It diffuses into the blood.
  2. It diffuses into the alveoli.
  3. The gradient is too small for carbon dioxide to diffuse.
  4. It decomposes into carbon and oxygen.

Oxyhemoglobin forms by a chemical reaction between which of the following?

  1. hemoglobin and carbon dioxide
  2. carbonic anhydrase and carbon dioxide
  3. hemoglobin and oxygen
  4. carbonic anhydrase and oxygen

Which of the following factors play a role in the oxygen–hemoglobin saturation/dissociation curve?

  1. temperature
  2. pH
  3. BPG
  4. all of the above

Which of the following occurs during the chloride shift?

  1. Chloride is removed from the erythrocyte.
  2. Chloride is exchanged for bicarbonate.
  3. Bicarbonate is removed from the erythrocyte.
  4. Bicarbonate is removed from the blood.

A low partial pressure of oxygen promotes hemoglobin binding to carbon dioxide. This is an example of the ________.

  1. Haldane effect
  2. Bohr effect
  3. Dalton’s law
  4. Henry’s law

Increased ventilation that results in an increase in blood pH is called ________.

  1. hyperventilation
  2. hyperpnea
  3. acclimatization
  4. apnea

Exercise can trigger symptoms of AMS due to which of the following?

  1. low partial pressure of oxygen
  2. low atmospheric pressure
  3. abnormal neural signals
  4. small venous reserve of oxygen

Which of the following stimulates the production of erythrocytes?

  1. AMS
  2. high blood levels of carbon dioxide
  3. low atmospheric pressure
  4. erythropoietin

The olfactory pits form from which of the following?

  1. mesoderm
  2. cartilage
  3. ectoderm
  4. endoderm

A full complement of mature alveoli are present by ________.

  1. early childhood, around 8 years of age
  2. birth
  3. 37 weeks
  4. 16 weeks

If a baby is born prematurely before type II cells produce sufficient pulmonary surfactant, which of the following might you expect?

  1. difficulty expressing fluid
  2. difficulty inflating the lungs
  3. difficulty with pulmonary capillary flow
  4. no difficulty as type I cells can provide enough surfactant for normal breathing

When do fetal breathing movements begin?

  1. around week 20
  2. around week 37
  3. around week 16
  4. after birth

What happens to the fluid that remains in the lungs after birth?

  1. It reduces the surface tension of the alveoli.
  2. It is expelled shortly after birth.
  3. It is absorbed shortly after birth.
  4. It lubricates the pleurae.
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