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Which of the following cells is phagocytic?

  1. plasma cell
  2. macrophage
  3. B cell
  4. NK cell

Which structure allows lymph from the lower right limb to enter the bloodstream?

  1. thoracic duct
  2. right lymphatic duct
  3. right lymphatic trunk
  4. left lymphatic trunk

Which of the following cells is important in the innate immune response?

  1. B cells
  2. T cells
  3. macrophages
  4. plasma cells

Which of the following cells would be most active in early, antiviral immune responses the first time one is exposed to pathogen?

  1. macrophage
  2. T cell
  3. neutrophil
  4. natural killer cell

Which of the lymphoid nodules is most likely to see food antigens first?

  1. tonsils
  2. Peyer’s patches
  3. bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue
  4. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Which of the following signs is not characteristic of inflammation?

  1. redness
  2. pain
  3. cold
  4. swelling

Which of the following is not important in the antiviral innate immune response?

  1. interferons
  2. natural killer cells
  3. complement
  4. microphages

Enhanced phagocytosis of a cell by the binding of a specific protein is called ________.

  1. endocytosis
  2. opsonization
  3. anaphylaxis
  4. complement activation

Which of the following leads to the redness of inflammation?

  1. increased vascular permeability
  2. anaphylactic shock
  3. increased blood flow
  4. complement activation

T cells that secrete cytokines that help antibody responses are called ________.

  1. Th1
  2. Th2
  3. regulatory T cells
  4. thymocytes

The taking in of antigen and digesting it for later presentation is called ________.

  1. antigen presentation
  2. antigen processing
  3. endocytosis
  4. exocytosis

Why is clonal expansion so important?

  1. to select for specific cells
  2. to secrete cytokines
  3. to kill target cells
  4. to increase the numbers of specific cells

The elimination of self-reactive thymocytes is called ________.

  1. positive selection.
  2. negative selection.
  3. tolerance.
  4. clonal selection.

Which type of T cell is most effective against viruses?

  1. Th1
  2. Th2
  3. cytotoxic T cells
  4. regulatory T cells

Removing functionality from a B cell without killing it is called ________.

  1. clonal selection
  2. clonal expansion
  3. clonal deletion
  4. clonal anergy

Which class of antibody crosses the placenta in pregnant people?

  1. IgM
  2. IgA
  3. IgE
  4. IgG

Which class of antibody has no known function other than as an antigen receptor?

  1. IgM
  2. IgA
  3. IgE
  4. IgD

When does class switching occur?

  1. primary response
  2. secondary response
  3. tolerance
  4. memory response

Which class of antibody is found in mucus?

  1. IgM
  2. IgA
  3. IgE
  4. IgD

Which enzymes in macrophages are important for clearing intracellular bacteria?

  1. metabolic
  2. mitochondrial
  3. nuclear
  4. lysosomal

What type of chronic lung disease is caused by a Mycobacterium?

  1. asthma
  2. emphysema
  3. tuberculosis
  4. leprosy

Which type of immune response is most directly effective against bacteria?

  1. natural killer cells
  2. complement
  3. cytotoxic T cells
  4. helper T cells

What is the reason that you have to be immunized with a new influenza vaccine each year?

  1. the vaccine is only protective for a year
  2. mutation
  3. macrophage oxidative metabolism
  4. memory response

Which type of immune response works in concert with cytotoxic T cells against virally infected cells?

  1. natural killer cells
  2. complement
  3. antibodies
  4. memory

Which type of hypersensitivity involves soluble antigen-antibody complexes?

  1. type I
  2. type II
  3. type III
  4. type IV

What causes the delay in delayed hypersensitivity?

  1. inflammation
  2. cytokine release
  3. recruitment of immune cells
  4. histamine release

Which of the following is a critical feature of immediate hypersensitivity?

  1. inflammation
  2. cytotoxic T cells
  3. recruitment of immune cells
  4. histamine release

Which of the following is an autoimmune disease of the heart?

  1. rheumatoid arthritis
  2. lupus
  3. rheumatic fever
  4. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

What drug is used to counteract the effects of anaphylactic shock?

  1. epinephrine
  2. antihistamines
  3. antibiotics
  4. aspirin

Which of the following terms means “many genes”?

  1. polymorphism
  2. polygeny
  3. polypeptide
  4. multiple alleles

Why do we have natural antibodies?

  1. We don’t know why.
  2. immunity to environmental bacteria
  3. immunity to transplants
  4. from clonal selection

Which type of cancer is associated with HIV disease?

  1. Kaposi’s sarcoma
  2. melanoma
  3. lymphoma
  4. renal cell carcinoma

How does cyclosporine A work?

  1. suppresses antibodies
  2. suppresses T cells
  3. suppresses macrophages
  4. suppresses neutrophils

What disease is associated with bone marrow transplants?

  1. diabetes mellitus type I
  2. melanoma
  3. headache
  4. graft-versus-host disease
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