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the process by which seats in the House of Representatives are distributed among the fifty states
the political process that results from dividing a legislature into two separate assemblies
proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature
a parliamentary process to end a debate in the Senate, as a measure against the filibuster; invoked when three-fifths of senators vote for the motion
collective representation
the relationship between Congress and the United States as a whole, and whether the institution itself represents the American people
conference committee
a special type of joint committee that reconciles different bills passed in the House and Senate so a single bill results
the body of voters, or constituents, represented by a particular politician
delegate model of representation
a model of representation in which representatives feel compelled to act on the specific stated wishes of their constituents
descriptive representation
the extent to which a body of representatives represents the descriptive characteristics of their constituencies, such as class, race, ethnicity, and gender
enumerated powers
the powers given explicitly to the federal government by the Constitution to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, raise and support armies, declare war, coin money, and conduct foreign affairs
a parliamentary maneuver used in the Senate to extend debate on a piece of legislation as long as possible, typically with the intended purpose of obstructing or killing it
implied powers
the powers not specifically detailed in the U.S. Constitution but inferred as necessary to achieve the objectives of the national government
inherent powers
the powers neither enumerated nor implied but assumed to exist as a direct result of the country’s existence
joint committee
a legislative committee consisting of members from both chambers that investigates certain topics but lacks bill referral authority
majority leader
the leader of the majority party in either the House or Senate; in the House, the majority leader serves under the Speaker of the House, in the Senate, the majority leader is the functional leader and chief spokesperson for the majority party
the amending and voting process in a congressional committee
minority leader
the party member who directs the activities of the minority party on the floor of either the House or the Senate
the right to review and monitor other bodies such as the executive branch
politico model of representation
a model of representation in which members of Congress act as either trustee or delegate, based on rational political calculations about who is best served, the constituency or the nation
pork-barrel politics
federal spending intended to benefit a particular district or set of constituents
president pro tempore
the senator who acts in the absence of the actual president of the Senate, who is also the vice president of the United States; the president pro tempore is usually the most senior senator of the majority party
an elected leader’s looking out for constituents while carrying out the duties of the office
select committee
a small legislative committee created to fulfill a specific purpose and then disbanded; also called an ad hoc, or special, committee
Speaker of the House
the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the leader of the majority party; the Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, after the vice president
standing committee
a permanent legislative committee that meets regularly
surge-and-decline theory
a theory proposing that the surge of stimulation occurring during presidential elections subsides during midterm elections, accounting for the differences we observe in turnouts and results
trustee model of representation
a model of representation in which representatives feel at liberty to act in the way they believe is best for their constituents
in the House and in the Senate, a high leadership position whose primary duty is to enforce voting discipline in the chambers and conferences
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