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Algebra and Trigonometry

3.2 Domain and Range

Algebra and Trigonometry3.2 Domain and Range
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Prerequisites
    1. Introduction to Prerequisites
    2. 1.1 Real Numbers: Algebra Essentials
    3. 1.2 Exponents and Scientific Notation
    4. 1.3 Radicals and Rational Exponents
    5. 1.4 Polynomials
    6. 1.5 Factoring Polynomials
    7. 1.6 Rational Expressions
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Equations and Inequalities
    2. 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate Systems and Graphs
    3. 2.2 Linear Equations in One Variable
    4. 2.3 Models and Applications
    5. 2.4 Complex Numbers
    6. 2.5 Quadratic Equations
    7. 2.6 Other Types of Equations
    8. 2.7 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 3.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 3.2 Domain and Range
    4. 3.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 3.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 3.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 3.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 3.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 4.1 Linear Functions
    3. 4.2 Modeling with Linear Functions
    4. 4.3 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    5. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
    6. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 5.1 Quadratic Functions
    3. 5.2 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    4. 5.3 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    5. 5.4 Dividing Polynomials
    6. 5.5 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    7. 5.6 Rational Functions
    8. 5.7 Inverses and Radical Functions
    9. 5.8 Modeling Using Variation
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 6.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 6.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 6.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 6.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 6.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 6.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 6.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 The Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    1. Introduction to The Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    2. 7.1 Angles
    3. 7.2 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    4. 7.3 Unit Circle
    5. 7.4 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    6. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    7. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 8.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 8.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 8.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    6. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 9.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 9.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 9.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 9.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 9.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 10.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 10.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 10.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 10.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 10.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 10.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 10.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 10.8 Vectors
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 11.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 11.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 11.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 11.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 11.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 11.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 11.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 11.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. 12 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 12.1 The Ellipse
    3. 12.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 12.3 The Parabola
    5. 12.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 12.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  14. 13 Sequences, Probability, and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 13.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 13.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 13.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 13.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 13.5 Counting Principles
    7. 13.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 13.7 Probability
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  15. A | Proofs, Identities, and Toolkit Functions
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  17. Index

Learning Objectives

In this section, you will:

  • Find the domain of a function defined by an equation.
  • Graph piecewise-defined functions.

If you’re in the mood for a scary movie, you may want to check out one of the five most popular horror movies of all time—I am Legend, Hannibal, The Ring, The Grudge, and The Conjuring. Figure 1 shows the amount, in dollars, each of those movies grossed when they were released as well as the ticket sales for horror movies in general by year. Notice that we can use the data to create a function of the amount each movie earned or the total ticket sales for all horror movies by year. In creating various functions using the data, we can identify different independent and dependent variables, and we can analyze the data and the functions to determine the domain and range. In this section, we will investigate methods for determining the domain and range of functions such as these.

Two graphs where the first graph is of the Top-Five Grossing Horror Movies for years 2000-2003 and Market Share of Horror Movies by Year
Figure 1 Based on data compiled by www.the-numbers.com.3

Finding the Domain of a Function Defined by an Equation

In Functions and Function Notation, we were introduced to the concepts of domain and range. In this section, we will practice determining domains and ranges for specific functions. Keep in mind that, in determining domains and ranges, we need to consider what is physically possible or meaningful in real-world examples, such as tickets sales and year in the horror movie example above. We also need to consider what is mathematically permitted. For example, we cannot include any input value that leads us to take an even root of a negative number if the domain and range consist of real numbers. Or in a function expressed as a formula, we cannot include any input value in the domain that would lead us to divide by 0.

We can visualize the domain as a “holding area” that contains “raw materials” for a “function machine” and the range as another “holding area” for the machine’s products. See Figure 2.

Diagram of how a function relates two relations.
Figure 2

We can write the domain and range in interval notation, which uses values within brackets to describe a set of numbers. In interval notation, we use a square bracket [ when the set includes the endpoint and a parenthesis ( to indicate that the endpoint is either not included or the interval is unbounded. For example, if a person has $100 to spend, he or she would need to express the interval that is more than 0 and less than or equal to 100 and write ( 0,100 ]. ( 0,100 ]. We will discuss interval notation in greater detail later.

Let’s turn our attention to finding the domain of a function whose equation is provided. Oftentimes, finding the domain of such functions involves remembering three different forms. First, if the function has no denominator or an odd root, consider whether the domain could be all real numbers. Second, if there is a denominator in the function’s equation, exclude values in the domain that force the denominator to be zero. Third, if there is an even root, consider excluding values that would make the radicand negative.

Before we begin, let us review the conventions of interval notation:

  • The smallest number from the interval is written first.
  • The largest number in the interval is written second, following a comma.
  • Parentheses, ( or ), are used to signify that an endpoint value is not included, called exclusive.
  • Brackets, [ or ], are used to indicate that an endpoint value is included, called inclusive.

See Figure 3 for a summary of interval notation.

Summary of interval notation.
Figure 3

Example 1

Finding the Domain of a Function as a Set of Ordered Pairs

Find the domain of the following function: { ( 2,10 ),( 3,10 ),( 4,20 ),( 5,30 ),( 6,40 ) } { ( 2,10 ),( 3,10 ),( 4,20 ),( 5,30 ),( 6,40 ) } .

Try It #1

Find the domain of the function:

{ (−5,4),(0,0),(5,−4),(10,−8),(15,−12) } { (−5,4),(0,0),(5,−4),(10,−8),(15,−12) }

How To

Given a function written in equation form, find the domain.

  1. Identify the input values.
  2. Identify any restrictions on the input and exclude those values from the domain.
  3. Write the domain in interval form, if possible.

Example 2

Finding the Domain of a Function

Find the domain of the function f(x)= x 2 1. f(x)= x 2 1.

Try It #2

Find the domain of the function: f(x)=5x+ x 3 . f(x)=5x+ x 3 .

How To

Given a function written in an equation form that includes a fraction, find the domain.

  1. Identify the input values.
  2. Identify any restrictions on the input. If there is a denominator in the function’s formula, set the denominator equal to zero and solve for x x . If the function’s formula contains an even root, set the radicand greater than or equal to 0, and then solve.
  3. Write the domain in interval form, making sure to exclude any restricted values from the domain.

Example 3

Finding the Domain of a Function Involving a Denominator

Find the domain of the function f(x)= x+1 2x . f(x)= x+1 2x .

Try It #3

Find the domain of the function: f(x)= 1+4x 2x1 . f(x)= 1+4x 2x1 .

How To

Given a function written in equation form including an even root, find the domain.

  1. Identify the input values.
  2. Since there is an even root, exclude any real numbers that result in a negative number in the radicand. Set the radicand greater than or equal to zero and solve for x. x.
  3. The solution(s) are the domain of the function. If possible, write the answer in interval form.

Example 4

Finding the Domain of a Function with an Even Root

Find the domain of the function f(x)= 7x . f(x)= 7x .

Try It #4

Find the domain of the function f(x)= 5+2x . f(x)= 5+2x .

Q&A

Can there be functions in which the domain and range do not intersect at all?

Yes. For example, the function f(x)= 1 x f(x)= 1 x has the set of all positive real numbers as its domain but the set of all negative real numbers as its range. As a more extreme example, a function’s inputs and outputs can be completely different categories (for example, names of weekdays as inputs and numbers as outputs, as on an attendance chart), in such cases the domain and range have no elements in common.

Using Notations to Specify Domain and Range

In the previous examples, we used inequalities and lists to describe the domain of functions. We can also use inequalities, or other statements that might define sets of values or data, to describe the behavior of the variable in set-builder notation. For example, { x|10x<30 } { x|10x<30 } describes the behavior of x x in set-builder notation. The braces {} {} are read as “the set of,” and the vertical bar | is read as “such that,” so we would read { x|10x<30 } { x|10x<30 } as “the set of x-values such that 10 is less than or equal to x, x, and x x is less than 30.”

Figure 5 compares inequality notation, set-builder notation, and interval notation.

Summary of notations for inequalities, set-builder, and intervals.
Figure 5

To combine two intervals using inequality notation or set-builder notation, we use the word “or.” As we saw in earlier examples, we use the union symbol, , , to combine two unconnected intervals. For example, the union of the sets {2,3,5} {2,3,5} and {4,6} {4,6} is the set {2,3,4,5,6}. {2,3,4,5,6}. It is the set of all elements that belong to one or the other (or both) of the original two sets. For sets with a finite number of elements like these, the elements do not have to be listed in ascending order of numerical value. If the original two sets have some elements in common, those elements should be listed only once in the union set. For sets of real numbers on intervals, another example of a union is

{ x| | x |3 }=( ,3 ][ 3, ) { x| | x |3 }=( ,3 ][ 3, )

Set-Builder Notation and Interval Notation

Set-builder notation is a method of specifying a set of elements that satisfy a certain condition. It takes the form {x|statement about x} {x|statement about x} which is read as, “the set of all x x such that the statement about x x is true.” For example,

{ x|4<x12 } { x|4<x12 }

Interval notation is a way of describing sets that include all real numbers between a lower limit that may or may not be included and an upper limit that may or may not be included. The endpoint values are listed between brackets or parentheses. A square bracket indicates inclusion in the set, and a parenthesis indicates exclusion from the set. For example,

( 4,12 ] ( 4,12 ]

How To

Given a line graph, describe the set of values using interval notation.

  1. Identify the intervals to be included in the set by determining where the heavy line overlays the real line.
  2. At the left end of each interval, use [ with each end value to be included in the set (solid dot) or ( for each excluded end value (open dot).
  3. At the right end of each interval, use ] with each end value to be included in the set (filled dot) or ) for each excluded end value (open dot).
  4. Use the union symbol to combine all intervals into one set.

Example 5

Describing Sets on the Real-Number Line

Describe the intervals of values shown in Figure 6 using inequality notation, set-builder notation, and interval notation.

Line graph of 1<=x<=3 and 5<x.
Figure 6
Try It #5

Given Figure 7, specify the graphed set in

  1. words
  2. set-builder notation
  3. interval notation
Line graph of -2<=x, -1<=x<3.
Figure 7

Finding Domain and Range from Graphs

Another way to identify the domain and range of functions is by using graphs. Because the domain refers to the set of possible input values, the domain of a graph consists of all the input values shown on the x-axis. The range is the set of possible output values, which are shown on the y-axis. Keep in mind that if the graph continues beyond the portion of the graph we can see, the domain and range may be greater than the visible values. See Figure 8.

Graph of a polynomial that shows the x-axis is the domain and the y-axis is the range
Figure 8

We can observe that the graph extends horizontally from −5 −5 to the right without bound, so the domain is [ −5, ). [ −5, ). The vertical extent of the graph is all range values 5 5 and below, so the range is ( −∞,5 ]. ( −∞,5 ]. Note that the domain and range are always written from smaller to larger values, or from left to right for domain, and from the bottom of the graph to the top of the graph for range.

Example 6

Finding Domain and Range from a Graph

Find the domain and range of the function f f whose graph is shown in Figure 9.

Graph of a function from (-3, 1].
Figure 9

Example 7

Finding Domain and Range from a Graph of Oil Production

Find the domain and range of the function f f whose graph is shown in Figure 11.

Graph of the Alaska Crude Oil Production where the y-axis is thousand barrels per day and the -axis is the years.
Figure 11 (credit: modification of work by the U.S. Energy Information Administration)4
Try It #6

Given Figure 12, identify the domain and range using interval notation.

Graph of World Population Increase where the y-axis represents millions of people and the x-axis represents the year.
Figure 12

Q&A

Can a function’s domain and range be the same?

Yes. For example, the domain and range of the cube root function are both the set of all real numbers.

Finding Domains and Ranges of the Toolkit Functions

We will now return to our set of toolkit functions to determine the domain and range of each.

Constant function f(x)=c.
Figure 13 For the constant function f(x)=c, f(x)=c, the domain consists of all real numbers; there are no restrictions on the input. The only output value is the constant c, c, so the range is the set {c} {c} that contains this single element. In interval notation, this is written as [c,c], [c,c], the interval that both begins and ends with c. c.
Identity function f(x)=x.
Figure 14 For the identity function f(x)=x, f(x)=x, there is no restriction on x. x. Both the domain and range are the set of all real numbers.
Absolute function f(x)=|x|.
Figure 15 For the absolute value function f(x)=| x |, f(x)=| x |, there is no restriction on x. x. However, because absolute value is defined as a distance from 0, the output can only be greater than or equal to 0.
Quadratic function f(x)=x^2.
Figure 16 For the quadratic function f(x)= x 2 , f(x)= x 2 , the domain is all real numbers since the horizontal extent of the graph is the whole real number line. Because the graph does not include any negative values for the range, the range is only nonnegative real numbers.
Cubic function f(x)-x^3.
Figure 17 For the cubic function f(x)= x 3 , f(x)= x 3 , the domain is all real numbers because the horizontal extent of the graph is the whole real number line. The same applies to the vertical extent of the graph, so the domain and range include all real numbers.
Reciprocal function f(x)=1/x.
Figure 18 For the reciprocal function f(x)= 1 x , f(x)= 1 x , we cannot divide by 0, so we must exclude 0 from the domain. Further, 1 divided by any value can never be 0, so the range also will not include 0. In set-builder notation, we could also write {x|x0}, {x|x0}, the set of all real numbers that are not zero.
Reciprocal squared function f(x)=1/x^2
Figure 19 For the reciprocal squared function f(x)= 1 x 2 , f(x)= 1 x 2 , we cannot divide by 0, 0, so we must exclude 0 0 from the domain. There is also no x x that can give an output of 0, so 0 is excluded from the range as well. Note that the output of this function is always positive due to the square in the denominator, so the range includes only positive numbers.
Square root function f(x)=sqrt(x).
Figure 20 For the square root function f(x)= x , f(x)= x , we cannot take the square root of a negative real number, so the domain must be 0 or greater. The range also excludes negative numbers because the square root of a positive number x x is defined to be positive, even though the square of the negative number x x also gives us x. x.
Cube root function f(x)=x^(1/3).
Figure 21 For the cube root function f(x)= x 3 , f(x)= x 3 , the domain and range include all real numbers. Note that there is no problem taking a cube root, or any odd-integer root, of a negative number, and the resulting output is negative (it is an odd function).

How To

Given the formula for a function, determine the domain and range.

  1. Exclude from the domain any input values that result in division by zero.
  2. Exclude from the domain any input values that have nonreal (or undefined) number outputs.
  3. Use the valid input values to determine the range of the output values.
  4. Look at the function graph and table values to confirm the actual function behavior.

Example 8

Finding the Domain and Range Using Toolkit Functions

Find the domain and range of f(x)=2 x 3 x. f(x)=2 x 3 x.

Example 9

Finding the Domain and Range

Find the domain and range of f(x)= 2 x+1 . f(x)= 2 x+1 .

Example 10

Finding the Domain and Range

Find the domain and range of f(x)=2 x+4 . f(x)=2 x+4 .

Analysis

Figure 22 represents the function f. f.

Graph of a square root function at (-4, 0).
Figure 22
Try It #7

Find the domain and range of f( x )= 2x . f( x )= 2x .

Graphing Piecewise-Defined Functions

Sometimes, we come across a function that requires more than one formula in order to obtain the given output. For example, in the toolkit functions, we introduced the absolute value function f(x)=| x |. f(x)=| x |. With a domain of all real numbers and a range of values greater than or equal to 0, absolute value can be defined as the magnitude, or modulus, of a real number value regardless of sign. It is the distance from 0 on the number line. All of these definitions require the output to be greater than or equal to 0.

If we input 0, or a positive value, the output is the same as the input.

f(x)=xifx0 f(x)=xifx0

If we input a negative value, the output is the opposite of the input.

f(x)=xifx<0 f(x)=xifx<0

Because this requires two different processes or pieces, the absolute value function is an example of a piecewise function. A piecewise function is a function in which more than one formula is used to define the output over different pieces of the domain.

We use piecewise functions to describe situations in which a rule or relationship changes as the input value crosses certain “boundaries.” For example, we often encounter situations in business for which the cost per piece of a certain item is discounted once the number ordered exceeds a certain value. Tax brackets are another real-world example of piecewise functions. For example, consider a simple tax system in which incomes up to $10,000 are taxed at 10%, and any additional income is taxed at 20%. The tax on a total income S S would be 0.1S 0.1S if S$10,000 S$10,000 and $1000+0.2(S$10,000) $1000+0.2(S$10,000) if S>$10,000. S>$10,000.

Piecewise Function

A piecewise function is a function in which more than one formula is used to define the output. Each formula has its own domain, and the domain of the function is the union of all these smaller domains. We notate this idea like this:

f(x)={ formula 1     if xis in domain 1 formula 2     if xis in domain 2 formula 3     if xis in domain 3 f(x)={ formula 1     if xis in domain 1 formula 2     if xis in domain 2 formula 3     if xis in domain 3

In piecewise notation, the absolute value function is

| x |={ x   if  x0 x if  x<0 | x |={ x   if  x0 x if  x<0

How To

Given a piecewise function, write the formula and identify the domain for each interval.

  1. Identify the intervals for which different rules apply.
  2. Determine formulas that describe how to calculate an output from an input in each interval.
  3. Use braces and if-statements to write the function.

Example 11

Writing a Piecewise Function

A museum charges $5 per person for a guided tour with a group of 1 to 9 people or a fixed $50 fee for a group of 10 or more people. Write a function relating the number of people, n, n, to the cost, C. C.

Analysis

The function is represented in Figure 23. The graph is a diagonal line from n=0 n=0 to n=10 n=10 and a constant after that. In this example, the two formulas agree at the meeting point where n=10, n=10, but not all piecewise functions have this property.

Graph of C(n).
Figure 23

Example 12

Working with a Piecewise Function

A cell phone company uses the function below to determine the cost, C, C, in dollars for g g gigabytes of data transfer.

C(g)={ 25 if 0<g<2 25+10(g2) if g2 C(g)={ 25 if 0<g<2 25+10(g2) if g2

Find the cost of using 1.5 gigabytes of data and the cost of using 4 gigabytes of data.

Analysis

The function is represented in Figure 24. We can see where the function changes from a constant to a shifted and stretched identity at g=2. g=2. We plot the graphs for the different formulas on a common set of axes, making sure each formula is applied on its proper domain.

Graph of C(g)
Figure 24

How To

Given a piecewise function, sketch a graph.

  1. Indicate on the x-axis the boundaries defined by the intervals on each piece of the domain.
  2. For each piece of the domain, graph on that interval using the corresponding equation pertaining to that piece. Do not graph two functions over one interval because it would violate the criteria of a function.

Example 13

Graphing a Piecewise Function

Sketch a graph of the function.

f(x)={ x 2 if x1 3 if 1<x2 x if x>2 f(x)={ x 2 if x1 3 if 1<x2 x if x>2

Analysis

Note that the graph does pass the vertical line test even at x=1 x=1 and x=2 x=2 because the points (1,3)(1,3) and (2,2 )(2,2 ) are not part of the graph of the function, though (1,1)(1,1) and (2,3)(2,3) are.

Try It #8

Graph the following piecewise function.

f(x)={ x 3 if x<1 2 if 1<x<4 x if x>4 f(x)={ x 3 if x<1 2 if 1<x<4 x if x>4

Q&A

Can more than one formula from a piecewise function be applied to a value in the domain?

No. Each value corresponds to one equation in a piecewise formula.

3.2 Section Exercises

Verbal

1.

Why does the domain differ for different functions?

2.

How do we determine the domain of a function defined by an equation?

3.

Explain why the domain of f(x)= x 3 f(x)= x 3 is different from the domain of f(x)= x . f(x)= x .

4.

When describing sets of numbers using interval notation, when do you use a parenthesis and when do you use a bracket?

5.

How do you graph a piecewise function?

Algebraic

For the following exercises, find the domain of each function using interval notation.

6.

f(x)=2x(x1)(x2) f(x)=2x(x1)(x2)

7.

f(x)=52 x 2 f(x)=52 x 2

8.

f( x )=3 x2 f( x )=3 x2

9.

f( x )=3 62x f( x )=3 62x

10.

f(x)= 43x f(x)= 43x

11.

f(x)= x 2 +4 f(x)= x 2 +4

12.

f(x)= 12x 3 f(x)= 12x 3

13.

f(x)= x1 3 f(x)= x1 3

14.

f(x)= 9 x6 f(x)= 9 x6

15.

f( x )= 3x+1 4x+2 f( x )= 3x+1 4x+2

16.

f( x )= x+4 x4 f( x )= x+4 x4

17.

f(x)= x3 x 2 +9x22 f(x)= x3 x 2 +9x22

18.

f(x)= 1 x 2 x6 f(x)= 1 x 2 x6

19.

f(x)= 2 x 3 250 x 2 2x15 f(x)= 2 x 3 250 x 2 2x15

20.

5 x3 5 x3

21.

2x+1 5x 2x+1 5x

22.

f(x)= x4 x6 f(x)= x4 x6

23.

f(x)= x6 x4 f(x)= x6 x4

24.

f(x)= x x f(x)= x x

25.

f(x)= x 2 9x x 2 81 f(x)= x 2 9x x 2 81

26.

Find the domain of the function f(x)= 2 x 3 50x f(x)= 2 x 3 50x by:

  1. using algebra.
  2. graphing the function in the radicand and determining intervals on the x-axis for which the radicand is nonnegative.

Graphical

For the following exercises, write the domain and range of each function using interval notation.

27.
Graph of a function from (2, 8].
28.
Graph of a function from [4, 8).
29.
Graph of a function from [-4, 4].
30.
Graph of a function from [2, 6].
31.
Graph of a function from [-5, 3).
32.
Graph of a function from [-3, 2).
33.
Graph of a function from (-infinity, 2].
34.
Graph of a function from [-4, infinity).
35.
Graph of a function from [-6, -1/6]U[1/6, 6]/.
36.
Graph of a function from (-2.5, infinity).
37.
Graph of a function from [-3, infinity).

For the following exercises, sketch a graph of the piecewise function. Write the domain in interval notation.

38.

f(x)={ x+1 if x<2 2x3 if x2 f(x)={ x+1 if x<2 2x3 if x2

39.

f(x)={ 2x1 if x<1 1+x if x1 f(x)={ 2x1 if x<1 1+x if x1

40.

f(x)={ x+1ifx<0 x1ifx>0 f(x)={ x+1ifx<0 x1ifx>0

41.

f( x )={ 3 if x<0 x if x0 f( x )={ 3 if x<0 x if x0

42.

f(x)={ x 2      if x<0 1x if x>0 f(x)={ x 2      if x<0 1x if x>0

43.

f(x)={ x 2 x+2 ifx<0 ifx0 f(x)={ x 2 x+2 ifx<0 ifx0

44.

f( x )={ x+1 if x<1 x 3 if x1 f( x )={ x+1 if x<1 x 3 if x1

45.

f(x)={ |x| 1 ifx<2 ifx2 f(x)={ |x| 1 ifx<2 ifx2

Numeric

For the following exercises, given each function f, f, evaluate f(−3),f(−2),f(−1), f(−3),f(−2),f(−1), and f(0). f(0).

46.

f(x)={ x+1 if x<2 2x3 if x2 f(x)={ x+1 if x<2 2x3 if x2

47.

f(x)={ 1 if x3 0 if x>3 f(x)={ 1 if x3 0 if x>3

48.

f(x)={ 2 x 2 +3 if x1 5x7 if x>1 f(x)={ 2 x 2 +3 if x1 5x7 if x>1

For the following exercises, given each function f, f, evaluate f(−1),f(0),f(2), f(−1),f(0),f(2), and f(4). f(4).

49.

f(x)={ 7x+3 if x<0 7x+6 if x0 f(x)={ 7x+3 if x<0 7x+6 if x0

50.

f( x )={ x 2 2 if x<2 4+| x5 | if x2 f( x )={ x 2 2 if x<2 4+| x5 | if x2

51.

f( x )={ 5x if x<0 3 if 0x3 x 2 if x>3 f( x )={ 5x if x<0 3 if 0x3 x 2 if x>3

For the following exercises, write the domain for the piecewise function in interval notation.

52.

f(x)={ x+1ifx<2 2x3ifx2 f(x)={ x+1ifx<2 2x3ifx2

53.

f(x)={ x 2 2ifx<1 x 2 +2ifx>1 f(x)={ x 2 2ifx<1 x 2 +2ifx>1

54.

f(x)={ 2x3 3 x 2 ifx<0 ifx2 f(x)={ 2x3 3 x 2 ifx<0 ifx2

Technology

55.

Graph y= 1 x 2 y= 1 x 2 on the viewing window [−0.5,−0.1] [−0.5,−0.1] and [0.1,0.5]. [0.1,0.5]. Determine the corresponding range for the viewing window. Show the graphs.

56.

Graph y= 1 x y= 1 x on the viewing window [−0.5,−0.1] [−0.5,−0.1] and [0.1,0.5]. [0.1,0.5]. Determine the corresponding range for the viewing window. Show the graphs.

Extension

57.

Suppose the range of a function f f is [−5,8]. [−5,8]. What is the range of |f(x)|? |f(x)|?

58.

Create a function in which the range is all nonnegative real numbers.

59.

Create a function in which the domain is x>2. x>2.

Real-World Applications

60.

The height h h of a projectile is a function of the time t t it is in the air. The height in feet for t t seconds is given by the function h(t)=−16 t 2 +96t. h(t)=−16 t 2 +96t. What is the domain of the function? What does the domain mean in the context of the problem?

61.

The cost in dollars of making x x items is given by the function C(x)=10x+500. C(x)=10x+500.

  1. The fixed cost is determined when zero items are produced. Find the fixed cost for this item.
  2. What is the cost of making 25 items?
  3. Suppose the maximum cost allowed is $1500. What are the domain and range of the cost function, C(x)? C(x)?

Footnotes

  • 3The Numbers: Where Data and the Movie Business Meet. “Box Office History for Horror Movies.” http://www.the-numbers.com/market/genre/Horror. Accessed 3/24/2014
  • 4http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MCRFPAK2&f=A.
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