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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Prerequisites
    1. Introduction to Prerequisites
    2. 1.1 Real Numbers: Algebra Essentials
    3. 1.2 Exponents and Scientific Notation
    4. 1.3 Radicals and Rational Exponents
    5. 1.4 Polynomials
    6. 1.5 Factoring Polynomials
    7. 1.6 Rational Expressions
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Review Exercises
    12. Practice Test
  3. 2 Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Equations and Inequalities
    2. 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate Systems and Graphs
    3. 2.2 Linear Equations in One Variable
    4. 2.3 Models and Applications
    5. 2.4 Complex Numbers
    6. 2.5 Quadratic Equations
    7. 2.6 Other Types of Equations
    8. 2.7 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  4. 3 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 3.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 3.2 Domain and Range
    4. 3.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 3.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 3.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 3.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 3.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  5. 4 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 4.1 Linear Functions
    3. 4.2 Modeling with Linear Functions
    4. 4.3 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Concepts
    7. Review Exercises
    8. Practice Test
  6. 5 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 5.1 Quadratic Functions
    3. 5.2 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    4. 5.3 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    5. 5.4 Dividing Polynomials
    6. 5.5 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    7. 5.6 Rational Functions
    8. 5.7 Inverses and Radical Functions
    9. 5.8 Modeling Using Variation
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  7. 6 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 6.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 6.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 6.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 6.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 6.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 6.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 6.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  8. 7 The Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    1. Introduction to The Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    2. 7.1 Angles
    3. 7.2 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    4. 7.3 Unit Circle
    5. 7.4 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  9. 8 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 8.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 8.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 8.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Review Exercises
    9. Practice Test
  10. 9 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 9.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 9.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 9.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 9.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 9.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Review Exercises
    11. Practice Test
  11. 10 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 10.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 10.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 10.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 10.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 10.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 10.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 10.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 10.8 Vectors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  12. 11 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 11.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 11.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 11.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 11.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 11.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 11.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 11.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 11.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  13. 12 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 12.1 The Ellipse
    3. 12.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 12.3 The Parabola
    5. 12.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 12.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Review Exercises
    11. Practice Test
  14. 13 Sequences, Probability, and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 13.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 13.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 13.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 13.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 13.5 Counting Principles
    7. 13.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 13.7 Probability
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  15. A | Proofs, Identities, and Toolkit Functions
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  17. Index
addition method
an algebraic technique used to solve systems of linear equations in which the equations are added in a way that eliminates one variable, allowing the resulting equation to be solved for the remaining variable; substitution is then used to solve for the first variable
augmented matrix
a coefficient matrix adjoined with the constant column separated by a vertical line within the matrix brackets
break-even point
the point at which a cost function intersects a revenue function; where profit is zero
coefficient matrix
a matrix that contains only the coefficients from a system of equations
column
a set of numbers aligned vertically in a matrix
consistent system
a system for which there is a single solution to all equations in the system and it is an independent system, or if there are an infinite number of solutions and it is a dependent system
cost function
the function used to calculate the costs of doing business; it usually has two parts, fixed costs and variable costs
Cramer’s Rule
a method for solving systems of equations that have the same number of equations as variables using determinants
dependent system
a system of linear equations in which the two equations represent the same line; there are an infinite number of solutions to a dependent system
determinant
a number calculated using the entries of a square matrix that determines such information as whether there is a solution to a system of equations
entry
an element, coefficient, or constant in a matrix
feasible region
the solution to a system of nonlinear inequalities that is the region of the graph where the shaded regions of each inequality intersect
Gaussian elimination
using elementary row operations to obtain a matrix in row-echelon form
identity matrix
a square matrix containing ones down the main diagonal and zeros everywhere else; it acts as a 1 in matrix algebra
inconsistent system
a system of linear equations with no common solution because they represent parallel lines, which have no point or line in common
independent system
a system of linear equations with exactly one solution pair ( x,y ) ( x,y )
main diagonal
entries from the upper left corner diagonally to the lower right corner of a square matrix
matrix
a rectangular array of numbers
multiplicative inverse of a matrix
a matrix that, when multiplied by the original, equals the identity matrix
nonlinear inequality
an inequality containing a nonlinear expression
partial fraction decomposition
the process of returning a simplified rational expression to its original form, a sum or difference of simpler rational expressions
partial fractions
the individual fractions that make up the sum or difference of a rational expression before combining them into a simplified rational expression
profit function
the profit function is written as P(x)=R(x)C(x), P(x)=R(x)C(x), revenue minus cost
revenue function
the function that is used to calculate revenue, simply written as R=xp, R=xp, where x= x= quantity and p= p= price
row
a set of numbers aligned horizontally in a matrix
row operations
adding one row to another row, multiplying a row by a constant, interchanging rows, and so on, with the goal of achieving row-echelon form
row-echelon form
after performing row operations, the matrix form that contains ones down the main diagonal and zeros at every space below the diagonal
row-equivalent
two matrices A A and B B are row-equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by performing basic row operations
scalar multiple
an entry of a matrix that has been multiplied by a scalar
solution set
the set of all ordered pairs or triples that satisfy all equations in a system of equations
substitution method
an algebraic technique used to solve systems of linear equations in which one of the two equations is solved for one variable and then substituted into the second equation to solve for the second variable
system of linear equations
a set of two or more equations in two or more variables that must be considered simultaneously.
system of nonlinear equations
a system of equations containing at least one equation that is of degree larger than one
system of nonlinear inequalities
a system of two or more inequalities in two or more variables containing at least one inequality that is not linear
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