6.1 Types of Groups
What does a Functionalist consider when studying a phenomenon like the Occupy Wall Street movement?
- The minute functions that every person at the protests plays in the whole
- The internal conflicts that play out within such a diverse and leaderless group
- How the movement contributes to the stability of society by offering the discontented a safe, controlled outlet for dissension
- The factions and divisions that form within the movement
What is the largest difference between the Functionalist and Conflict perspectives and the Interactionist perspective?
- The former two consider long-term repercussions of the group or situation, while the latter focuses on the present.
- The first two are the more common sociological perspective, while the latter is a newer sociological model.
- The first two focus on hierarchical roles within an organization, while the last takes a more holistic view.
- The first two perspectives address large-scale issues facing groups, while the last examines more detailed aspects.
What role do secondary groups play in society?
- They are transactional, task-based, and short-term, filling practical needs.
- They provide a social network that allows people to compare themselves to others.
- The members give and receive emotional support.
- They allow individuals to challenge their beliefs and prejudices.
When a high school student gets teased by her basketball team for receiving an academic award, she is dealing with competing ______________.
- primary groups
- reference groups
- secondary groups
Which of the following is NOT an example of an in-group?
- The Ku Klux Klan
- A fraternity
- A synagogue
- A high school
What is a group whose values, norms, and beliefs come to serve as a standard for one's own behavior?
- Secondary group
- Formal organization
- Reference group
- Primary group
A parent who is worrying over her teenager’s dangerous and self-destructive behavior and low self-esteem may wish to look at her child’s:
- reference group
- All of the above
6.2 Group Size and Structure
Two people who have just had a baby have turned from a _______ to a _________.
- primary group; secondary group
- dyad; triad
- couple; family
- de facto group; nuclear family
Who is more likely to be an expressive leader?
- The sales manager of a fast-growing cosmetics company
- A high school teacher at a reform school
- The director of a summer camp for chronically ill children
- A manager at a fast-food restaurant
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate group for democratic leadership?
- A fire station
- A college classroom
- A high school prom committee
- A homeless shelter
In Asch’s study on conformity, what contributed to the ability of subjects to resist conforming?
- A very small group of witnesses
- The presence of an ally
- The ability to keep one’s answer private
- All of the above
Which type of group leadership has a communication pattern that flows from the top down?
6.3 Formal Organizations
Which is NOT an example of a normative organization?
- A book club
- A church youth group
- A People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) protest group
- A study hall
Which of these is an example of a total institution?
- High school
- Political party
- A gym
Why do people join utilitarian organizations?
- Because they feel an affinity with others there
- Because they receive a tangible benefit from joining
- Because they have no choice
- Because they feel pressured to do so
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bureaucracies?
- Coercion to join
- Hierarchy of authority
- Explicit rules
- Division of labor
What are some of the intended positive aspects of bureaucracies?
- Increased productivity
- Increased efficiency
- Equal treatment for all
- All of the above
What is an advantage of the McDonaldization of society?
- There is more variety of goods.
- There is less theft.
- There is more worldwide availability of goods.
- There is more opportunity for businesses.
What is a disadvantage of the McDonaldization of society?
- There is less variety of goods.
- There is an increased need for employees with postgraduate degrees.
- There is less competition so prices are higher.
- There are fewer jobs so unemployment increases.