12.1 The Difference Between Sex and Gender
The terms “masculine” and “feminine” refer to a person’s _________.
- both sex and gender
- none of the above
_______ is/are an individual’s self-conception of being male or female based on his or her association with masculine or feminine gender roles.
- Gender identity
- Gender bias
- Sexual orientation
- Sexual attitudes
Research indicates that individuals are aware of their sexual orientation _______.
- at infancy
- in early adolescence
- in early adulthood
- in late adulthood
A person who is biologically female but identifies with the male gender and has undergone surgery to alter her body is considered _______.
- a cross-dresser
Which of following is correct regarding the explanation for transgenderism?
- It is strictly biological and associated with chemical imbalances in the brain.
- It is a behavior that is learned through socializing with other transgendered individuals.
- It is genetic and usually skips one generation.
- Currently, there is no definitive explanation for transgenderism.
Which of the following is the best example of a gender stereotype?
- Women are typically shorter than men.
- Men do not live as long as women.
- Women tend to be overly emotional, while men tend to be levelheaded.
- Men hold more high-earning, leadership jobs than women.
Which of the following is the best example of the role peers play as an agent of socialization for school-aged children?
- Children can act however they wish around their peers because children are unaware of gender roles.
- Peers serve as a support system for children who wish to act outside of their assigned gender roles.
- Peers tend to reinforce gender roles by criticizing and marginalizing those who behave outside of their assigned roles.
- None of the above
To which theoretical perspective does the following statement most likely apply: Women continue to assume the responsibility in the household along with a paid occupation because it keeps the household running smoothly, i.e., at a state of balance?
- Conflict theory
- Feminist theory
- Symbolic interactionism
Only women are affected by gender stratification.
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, we “do gender”:
- during half of our activities
- only when they apply to our biological sex
- only if we are actively following gender roles
- all of the time, in everything we do
12.3 Sex and Sexuality
What Western country is thought to be the most liberal in its attitudes toward sex?
- United States
Compared to most Western societies, American sexual attitudes are considered _______.
Sociologists associate sexuality with _______.
- biological factors
- a person’s capacity for sexual feelings
According to national surveys, most American parents support which type of sex education program in school?
- Abstinence only
- Abstinence plus sexual safety
- Sexual safety without promoting abstinence
- No sex education
Which theoretical perspective stresses the importance of regulating sexual behavior to ensure marital cohesion and family stability?
- Conflict theory
- Symbolic interactionalism
- Queer theory