During George Washington’s administration, there were ________ cabinet positions.
The “spoils system” allocated political appointments on the basis of ________.
- party loyalty
- specialized education
Two recent periods of large-scale bureaucratic expansion were ________.
- the 1930s and the 1960s
- the 1920s and the 1980s
- the 1910s and the 1990s
- the 1930s and the 1950s
Briefly explain the underlying reason for the emergence of the spoils system.
The Civil Service Commission was created by the ________.
- Pendleton Act of 1883
- Lloyd–La Follette Act of 1912
- Hatch Act of 1939
- Political Activities Act of 1939
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 created the Office of Personnel Management and the ________.
- Civil Service Commission
- Merit Systems Protection Board
- “spoils system”
- General Schedule
Briefly explain the benefits and drawbacks of a merit system.
Which describes the ideal bureaucracy according to Max Weber?
- an apolitical, hierarchically organized agency
- an organization that competes with other bureaucracies for funding
- a wasteful, poorly organized agency
- an agency that shows clear electoral responsiveness
Which of the following models of bureaucracy best accounts for the way bureaucracies tend to push Congress for more funding each year?
- the Weberian model
- the acquisitive model
- the monopolistic model
- the ideal model
An example of a government corporation is ________.
- the State Department
- the CIA
Briefly explain why government might create a government corporation.
The Freedom of Information Act of 1966 helps citizens exercise oversight over the bureaucracy by ________.
- empowering Congress
- opening government records to citizen scrutiny
- requiring annual evaluations by the president
- forcing agencies to hold public meetings
When reformers speak of bureaucratic privatization, they mean all the following processes except ________.
- government grants
- third-party financing
Briefly explain the advantages of negotiated rulemaking.